An annotated collection of more than 5000 links to resources and ideas for the teaching of social psychology and related courses organized by topic





Attitudes & Behavior

Attraction & Relationships

Conflict & Peacemaking


Genes, Gender, & Culture

Group Influence





Psychology in the Courtroom

Social Beliefs & Judgments

The Self






























Attraction & Relationships


Activities and Exercises



Multimedia Resources (audio, video)

Topic Resources


Class Assignments

Articles, Books, and Book Chapters

= new link as of September 1, 2023

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Activities and Exercises

Are romantic relationships actually good for mental health? - A distressed and unsatisfying romantic relationship may be one of the most important social-environmental triggers for the _expression_ of psychopathology. Good questions for your students included.

The power of social contact - Previously, I shared some research on how valuable social contact, even with strangers, is to our well-being.  Here, David Myers suggests some classroom activity/discussion around the topic.  Here is a link to a good blog entry from David about the value of intergroup contact.

 Shared reality - Beth Morling suggests an activity to accompany a recent, interesting Current Directions article.

Pornography and psychological science - some good suggestions about how to open discussion in your class on this sensitive topic

Our sense of smell and our sense of others

“The two-way traffic between sexual relationship satisfaction” - Does “good sex enhance a loving relationship,” or does a loving relationship enhance sex?  Yes!  Subscriber David Myers reviews the research behind this conclusion and offers some good discussion questions to engage your students on the topic.

Opiods and social connection

The biology of social connection

Sexual conflict in human mating - some suggested activities to accompany a Current Directions article

Why close relationships predict health

 What women think of men with tattoos - In the last issue I sent you an article about this research.  Now, here are some suggestions for what you can do with this research in class.

"Why a good marriage is hard to find" - a couple activities from C. Nathan DeWall related to a recent article in Current Directions

"Love sees loveliness" - some good discussion questions around this interesting Current Directions article

"The truth about trust" - Nathan DeWall describes some classroom activities that can accompany this recent Current Directions article.

"How close relationships foster health and heartache" - David Myers suggests some activities to accompany another Current Directions article.

Does marriage predict physical and emotional well-being? - [added 2/17/15]

An update to the Pairing Game (Matching Game) - [added 2/17/15]

The Pairing Game - From the following source comes this in-class activity to illustrate the matching phenomenon:

Ellis, Bruce J; Kelley, Harold H. (1999). The pairing game: A classroom demonstration of the matching phenomenon. Teaching of Psychology, 26, 118-121. Abstract: Describes 2 versions of an in-class simulation that allows students to directly experience the matching phenomenon and explore issues concerning mate selection, social exchange, and related psychological concepts. Students are randomly assigned a value (either a numerical value or a list of adjectives), which they place on their forehead so others can see it but the student cannot. The goal is to pair off with another student with as high a value as possible. The simulation, called the Pairing Game, illustrates how matching on similarity can occur, even in the absence of knowledge of one's own value and merely by seeking the highest value possible in a partner.

Jim Friedrich reports that he uses this activity and adds: "I simply have my pairs that have emerged from the game arbitrarily designate a "Partner A" and a "Partner B"; then each pair gets to plot their coordinates with Partner A on the X asis and Partner B on the Y. There's always a very nice scatterplot, as the demo itself produces pretty good matching. Even medium size correlations of r = .5 tend to look pretty vague in small-N scatterplots, but the patterns jump right out whenever I do this (with or without the actual statstistical calculation)." He adds: "The article mentioned might go nicely with a recent finding reported in the Journal of Family Psychology (I believe) showing that heterosexual relationships in which the man is slightly less attractive than the woman exhibit better interpersonal relationships. The interpretation - or at last one of them - is that one of the things that less attractive men offer to attract more attractive woman with a broader range of choices is greater attentiveness, willingness to listen, etc. I've only read a summary and haven't been able to get the original yet, so don't quote me on this. For a more formal and comprehensive treatment of using market and economic principles in an attempt to understand key elements of heterosexual relationships, I regularly assign the following article by Roy Baumeister and Kathleen Vohs. [Baumeister, Roy F; Vohs, Kathleen D. (2004). Sexual Economics: Sex as Female Resource for Social Exchange in Heterosexual Interactions. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8, 339-363.] It always generates lots of reactions (ranging from amused to heated) and provides a good opportunity for talking about what one looks for or doesn't in good theory -- ability to parsimoniously explain a range of existing phenomena, ability to generate new testable predictions, use of principles that are "independently motivated" (developed for purposes other than for explaining the phenomena in question), etc. It also provides opportunities to talk about things like naturalistic fallacy errors and the temptation to evaluate psychological theories (provisional and testable descriptions of nature) by the way they make us feel or the social ends they might or might not serve." Here's a link to a related article. [added 5/3/08]

Can romance be rational? - a few good activities from Myers and DeWall [added 2/12/15]

The Similarity Project - In one version of this activity, starting in groups of four, students are asked to identify as many similarities as they can between their different groups. Then they join larger and larger groups to see if they can identify even more similarities. [added 12/29/11]

Playing a Facebook game - Dan Ariely has created a Facebook activity that he can use as a research tool and your students can use to learn about different social psychological phenomena. Of course, none of your students may be on Facebook... [added 4/1/11]

Creating an "average" face - Interesting site lets you create an average face from images provided. The site also explains how these average faces are created. "You can also average your own uploaded faces!" [added 4/4/08]

Face Filter - fun site where one can morph a face to fit several emotional responses and types of attractiveness [added 4/06/04]


Multimedia Resources (Audio / Video)


Consensual nonmonogamy (19:43) - "Consensually nonmonogamous relationships are defined by explicit mutual agreements to have multiple emotional, romantic, and/or sexual relationships." A podcast from APS

Is cheating just a symptom (and not the cause) of declining relationships? (14:31) - - Podcast from Under the Cortex at APS

The impact of being “ghosted” (16:27) - This podcast discusses the phenomenon and some research on the topic.  Ghosted: An unexplained and unexpected termination of communication from someone online

The power of vitamin S (24:36) - This podcast is a conversation with Paul van Lange about his recent research on the importance of social contact (vitamin S).

The psychology of attractiveness podcast - I just stumbled across this series of podcasts that ended in 2019.  You may find something of interest here.

“Swiping me off my feet on Tinder” (13:35) - a podcast from Science of Relationships (now Luvze)

Anticipating change in the relationship and relationship quality - a podcast from Science of Relationships (now Luvze)

Facial contrast and Kim Kardashian's ... - a podcast

Coalitional mate retention - If you want to prevent your partner from cheater, here's what you need to know.  A podcast

"How parents meddle in their children's love lives" - a podcast

"Stress and resolving disagreements immediately" - a podcast from Relationship Matters - [added 2/17/15]

"The link between relationship quality and oxytocin" - a podcast from Science of Relationships [added 2/17/15]

"Can we keep passion alive?" - a Relationship Matters podcast [added 2/12/15]

"Transcending shame and seeking forgiveness" - a podcast from Science of Relationships [added 2/18/14]

The secret of pronouns - NPR interviews James Pennebaker about his fascinating research on the use of pronouns and their relationship to dating. [added 6/26/12]

Am I Normal (Sexually)? - interesting, 30-minute episode in BBC radio's Am I Normal series [added 1/20/12]


Dealing with loneliness (8:13) - Molly Metz pointed me to this excellent video of social psychologist Lisa Jaremka discussing strategies for addressing loneliness.  Here is a link to an article on the topic from Jaremka. PANDEMIC

Can I have your number? (4:45) - amusing video from MadTV

"Girl, you don't need makeup" (3:15) - a humorous take on the subject from Amy Schumer

100 years of Russian beauty (1:40) - I have sent you a couple of these before.  Here is the 8th installment of this series.

100 years of Korean beauty in 1 minute (1:27)

Tryptophan promotes interpersonal trust

"A question of scents" (2:00) - A psychologist describes her research on the influence of the scent of lavender on trust.

"Grandfather goes on Tinder dates" (5:41) - for your enjoyment

Russell Brand's take on the Renee Zellweger kurfaffle - (7:40) [added 2/17/15]

Miss America pageants - (15:24) John Oliver takes them on in this segment from his show, Last Week Tonight. [added 2/17/15]

"The economic benefits of physical attractiveness" - (1:49) [added 2/17/15]

Does more effort equal a better relationship? - (6:06) Dubbed the Benjamin Franklin effect, this video describes a study investigating what happens when one partner puts a lot of effort into a relationship. Via Wikipedia, the Benjamin Franklin effect is illustrated when "a person who has done someone a favor is more likely to do that person another favor than they would be if they had received a favor from that person. Similarly, one who harms another is more willing to harm them again than the victim is to retaliate." As Ben himself told me, "He that has once done you a kindness will be more ready to do you another, than he whom you yourself have obliged." [added 2/12/15]

Why are babies so cute? - (2:12) [added 2/12/15]

Medley of men's breakup songs - (5:24) [added 2/12/15]

How the ideal female body has changed in the last 100 years - (1:58) [added 2/12/15]

Is loneliness lethal? - (18:45) A TED talk from John Cacioppo [added 2/12/15]

"It's NOT about the nail" - (1:42) You have to see this one -- a great take on male/female communication. [added 2/12/15]

The science of kissing - (5:51) [added 2/12/15]

Why we don't want to be alone - (2:49) [added 2/18/14]

Bad first date - (2:44) Fun video. Maybe you can ask your students if they have been the giver or receiver of such persistence? How would they respond? [added 8/5/13]

Passionate love - (41:35) presentation by Elaine Hatfield at the 2012 APS convention [added 8/5/13]

An amusing ad - (0:45) That's all I can say. I don't want to give it away. Like some people. [added 12/07/12]

Expedia creates dramatic ad for marriage equality - (3:20) [added 12/07/12]

Why your soulmate isn't that special (mathematically, that is) - (3:59) A great song by Tim Minchin -- thank you Science of Relationships ( for making me aware of it! [added 6/27/12]

"Love in a backward world" - (5:01) for your entertainment [added 6/26/12]

Third date = sex? - (1:44) A clip from the show The Big Bang Theory raises the question of whether "the idea that the third date is the 'sex date,' the date when it is deemed appropriate for a new couple to have sex" is a social norm or just a myth. [added 1/21/12]

Mating and loss aversion - (4:21) Steven Neuberg and his colleagues Yexin Jessica Li and Douglas Kenrick "discuss their research on how evolutionary motives such as mating and self-protection influence individuals' sensitivity to loss aversion." [added 1/21/12]

Technology and relationships - (2:47) Psychologist discusses research on our heavy consumption of technology and its link to relationship happiness/success. When you are done reading this issue at your computer or phone make sure that you go share it with a partner or kid or Juggalo. [added 1/21/12]

What is French kissing called in France? - (1:52) Here's a cute little video montage of kissing accompanied by some facts including the answer to the above question. [added 1/20/12]

Does spousal conflict impair the immune system? - (6:14) video and text describing an interesting study testing this question
[added 1/20/12]

Extreme photo retouching - (2:29) This video illustrates how many of the images we see are often modified to eliminate blemishes and make more appealing. [added 8/14/11]

Why online dating is so unsatisfying - (7:41) Watch an interview with Dan Ariely discussing the topic. [added 12/16/10]

Hikikomori in Japan - (9:35) This form of social isolation, Hikikomori, in which, typically, young boys and men lock themselves in their rooms for years in some cases, appears to be fairly unique to Japan. This link takes you to Part 1 of the video. You can find Part 2 on the video page. [added 1/15/10]

Propinquity - (3:54) That's physical proximity to you young whippersnappers. Here's a song ("Somebody") from Reba McEntire that captures well our tendency to choose from those nearby. [added 12/12/07]

Class Assignments

Exam Questions

Here is an excellent pandemic-related essay question from Molly Metz: Here is an essay question I used on my final exam for my close relationships course -  Read this article and watch these videos: Part1 / Part 2 / Part 3. Using concepts from multiple lectures and the textbook/readings, develop an analysis of this relationship. What are the factors that contributed to the initiation of this relationship? What is the current state of the relationship? In your opinion, is this relationship likely to persist for the duration of isolation? How about longer? Your analysis should be fully developed and should draw on content across multiple course topics. Make sure all key terms and theories are fully defined and applied. PANDEMIC



Attraction and Relationships - Now that the excellent Science of Relationships site has been around a bit (at least in Internet time), it has accumulated a number of good resources for teaching. The site creators have graciously compiled some of those resources and assignments at the link above. [added 12/12/12]

Paper Assignments

Variety from an Intimate Relationships course - Gary Lewandowski lets students choose from a variety of assignments including comparing popular press claims versus the research and creating a "how to" guide for relationship success. [added 3/1/05]




  Hindsight bias and relationships? - “Half of Americans say they knew their partner was ‘the one’ right away.”

Evolutionary Factors - Seinfeld Episode: Evolutionary factors in mate selection can be seen in the episode in which they try to fix up George with a date. He asks questions about his potential date's physical attributes and she asks questions about George's status, power and resources. Contributed by Steve Fein. [added 4/28/02]

Physical attractiveness - Physical attractiveness plays a big role in how we think of and respond to people. I've worked as a summer camp counselor for the past two years and you have to try and treat each kid the same but it is inevitable that you will have favorites. I remember one year there were two really bad kids in particular who were always getting into trouble. One was a little girl who was so cute. She always had a cute little outfit on, here little ears were pierced, and was hilarious. But she was always getting herself into trouble or not listening. The other kid was a little overweight and not so attractive boy who also knew just how to muster up trouble. But when it came to punishing the two it was hard to be equal and fair and generally what tended to happen is the cute girl would get away with a lot more. She could somehow get us to forget or be less mad about the trouble she had caused and distract us with her humor or by other tactics. And the little boy would often get in more trouble and get a lot less positive attention....Thinking back, my favorite kids have never really been unattractive, and I even feel horrible admitting that, but it's true. [added 4/16/08]

Physical Attractiveness - Something funny came to mind while I was looking over the section on physical attractiveness. Specifically, I was looking at the idea that attractive children are given the benefit of the doubt more often than less attractive children. This is so true! I work with two three-year-old boys that can look at me with their respective sets of baby blues and browns and melt me to the ground. It is so difficult to discipline a child that looks so cute when they look at you. In these situations, I consciously have to think about what I'm doing in order to discipline the gorgeous kids the same way I treat the other children.

Physical Attractiveness - North Central College uses the "attractive" idea to persuade people to attend the college. While going to class on a couple of days, I remember seeing a photographer on campus taking pictures of two or three attractive young students. I instantly thought of the course catalogue. The young people on the cover will help emphasize the stereotype of the student's physical appearance: happy, intelligent, kind, sociable and successful.

Physical proximity (propinquity) - Why do co-stars fall in love, this blog entry asks?

Propinquity (Physical Proximity) - When we discussed the idea that we make friends with those close to us this made me think of the floor that I live on now. Last year when we saw who was going to live on our floor we were very upset. Our end of the hall was all football players but the other end was all soccer players. Normally football hates soccer. At first things were a little tense but after a while some friendships developed. Because they were close it was easy to see if they wanted to go eat or go out or something and we found out they aren't as bad as we thought. If they didn't live close we would probably hate them still.


Equity -- there's a common source of argument. Does one person doing garbage equate to the other ironing? Does one person doing laundry equate to the other vacuuming? Early on in our marriage these issues cropped up frequently. Now as I look at it, 16 years later, these just aren't issues anymore. Each does what has to be done as it needs doing. Sometimes one of us has more time than the other. Consideration of the other's needs creates the equity anymore -- not the amount of equal effort. That's where the twist builds from because you know the other person will be there for you.

Equity - When we first married, I worked full-time while my husband finished college (before my liberated days). This was out of concern for his and our welfare. I did not expect anything in return. Now sixteen years and a family later, I am going to finish school. It is not easy. My personality takes a real nose dive during semesters. My energy level is good for squat. My husband does 75% of the housework. (The other 25% doesn't get done.) My level of patience will never get me a mother-of-the-year award. Yet in one of my reflective, depressive moods last year, I asked my husband why he put up with it. His response was "you put me through school years ago; it's the least I can do now." That is love.


Topic Resources

If you want someone new to like you, should you - ... be warm and friendly, or competent and dominant?

Bragging about what you are good at can make people trust you less

Showing signs of stress could make us more likeable - In a new study published in Evolution and Human Behavior, researchers found that people who displayed more nonverbal stress behaviors were rated as more likeable. People who had more social connections were more accurate in detecting stress in others. Across species, organisms show signs of stress that can be detected by others.

Greetings - A sociological look at our greetings of others PANDEMIC

Civil inattention and the pandemic - A nice essay explaining the concept of civil inattention, and how mask wearing likely exacerbates it PANDEMIC

"Why COVID-19 spreads faster in some countries than others" - As Larry White discusses, in some part it could because of relational mobility.  "Relational mobility refers to the ease with which people in a society form new relationships and end old ones." PANDEMIC

"Older adults use social media to compensate for fewer in-person interactions"

The Facetune epidemic - I had never heard of Facetune or this "epidemic."  Fascinating (and depressing) story

"When should you end a conversation? Probably sooner than you think."

Lonely? 9 ways to socialize safely during the pandemic PANDEMIC

Are we moving from social distancing to social bubbles? - An interesting sociological take on how the pandemic might shape our new social contacts and social groups PANDEMIC

"Social distancing prevents infections, but it can have unintended consequences" - PANDEMIC

"'Being fun' is an important marker of social status among children"

Why do we laugh?  The same reason other species do… - social bonding, and survival.

Most popular teens?  Those that are aggressive AND nice

Are we really that awkward at conversations? - “’We not only find that people report feeling under confident in their ability to engage in casual conversations,’ says Boothby, ‘they also tend to attribute the worst moments of the conversations - awkward pauses, conversational missteps - to themselves as opposed to their conversation partner.’ The reality, suggests Boothby, is that things are not as bad as they seem; people are very forgiving in conversations.”

What makes you feel loved? - Researchers presented 60 different scenarios to people (e.g., a child snuggling up to you; someone paying you a compliment) and asked them whether or not most people would feel loved in that situation.

The ovulation “crisis” - Here is a fascinating article about the rise and fall and rebirth of the evolutionary field of research related to changes in perceptions of women and by women as they move through their ovulation cycle.  When women move into their more fertile phase, are they rated as more attractive?  Are they more likely to wear red or pink?  Do they prefer a more manly body type?  What research findings have held up and which have fallen in the face of more careful examination?

Sexual posing (not baring skin) leads to automatic objectification

“Why playing hard to get won’t get you anywhere” - Science.

“The IQ score people say is most attractive” - 120, according to this research.  I’ve got to shave off a few points. 

Men and women interpret sexual intent very differently

"Loneliness and self-centeredness appear to be mutually reinforcing"

"15 common social quirks that make you less likeable"

The psychology of eye contact - a good review of some of the research

Sexual arousal increased risk-taking in men and women equally

What do you share on Facebook? - Interesting research reveals some relationships between postings, motivations, and personality.

How a perfume company convinced scientists of human pheromones

Flower power! - "But can the mere presence of flowers influence actual relationship behavior? To test this question, a French researcher randomly assigned female participants to watch a video of a male discussing food while participants were either (a) sitting in a room decorated with three vases full of flowers (roses, marigolds, and daisies), or (b) sitting in a room decorated with empty vases. Women who sat in the room with flowers rated the male in the video as sexier and more attractive, and they were more willing to date him." Read also about the two very cool follow-up studies. [added 2/12/15]

Those liked face-to-face are also liked online - [added 7/11/09]

Small world research on instant messaging - Answer: 6.6 degrees of separation [added 10/11/08]

The paradox of poygamy - "Contrary to popular belief, most women benefit from polygynous society, and most men benefit from monogamous society. This is because polygynous society allows some women to share a resourceful man of high status." [added 4/13/08]

Subliminal smells and likeability - story of research finding that in humans consciously undetectable odors alter social preferences [added 3/21/08]

Laughter is the way we connect - an article about research on the role laughter plays in our social world [added 11/17/07]

"Subliminal nude pictures focus attention" - research interpreted to suggest an evolutionary benefit for attending to sexual stimuli [added 12/30/06]

"Beast buddies: Do animals have friends?" - an intriguing question and article from ScienceNews [added 6/9/04]

Like Those Who Like Us

“People like you more than you know” - Most of the time we have an exaggerated perception of ourselves, but we often don’t think others do.  And remember the recent research that found that we think others’ social lives are much more exciting than our own.

We like those who like us - [added 2/12/15]

Propinquity (Physical Proximity)

The power of eye contact - Some interesting research

It’s a small world - No, I’m not going to start singing.  But I would recommend this essay about our social networks, and how technology has affected them.

Propinquity matters - That’s what I just told my class.  My online class.

Long-distance relationships cartoon - Ahh, propinquity. [added 1/29/12]

"18-year-old miraculously finds soulmate in hometown" - an amusing article from the satirical online newspaper The Onion -- ahh, propinquity! [added 12/30/06]



“People prefer strangers who share their political views to friends who don’t” - We are becoming more and more polarized.

Similarity promotes friendship; friendship promotes similarity - For years I have asked an exam question in which students must explain how propinquity (physical proximity) perpetuates similarity and how similarity perpetuates propinquity.  Here’s an interesting variation on that bidirectional causality.

“Why we love people, places, things that resemble us” - Look at me – is that so hard to believe?

“No, opposites do not attract” - I can’t wait until we get this replication failure.

Ahh, the name game - This blog entry looks at implicit egotism in our desire for people (and things) that share the initials of our own names.  Even Prince Harry.

"Your first date: Make sure your genes fit" - "People can now check that their genes fit. Yep, genes -- as in our DNA -- before going on a first date." [added 2/17/15]

More attracted to body odor of those who vote like us - Seriously. Wow. [added 2/17/15]

"Shared pain brings people together" - [added 2/17/15]

"Likes attract, but do they last?" - The answer is what I tell my students to write on psych exams if they have no clue to the answer: It depends! In this case the research suggests that it depends on the partners' levels of self-control. [added 8/5/13]

Similar music tastes indicate similar values which foretells attraction - [added 7/2/12]

Interpersonal Relationships

Romantic Relationships


Across cultures, men say 'I love you' first

People can tell when you are in love

Researchers discuss the study of love and attraction - "In a nod to Valentine’s Day, the Observer asked APS Fellows Lisa Diamond (University of Utah), Eli Finkel (Northwestern University), Nickola Overall (University of Auckland), and Harry Reis (University of Rochester) and psychological scientists Jessica Maxwell (Florida State University) and Meredith Chivers (Queen’s University) about the discoveries, challenges, and new directions in the study of love, desire, dating, and commitment."

Love - The APS Observer has several good articles on the topic in its February (2019) issue.

Love and marriage - a number of good articles from APS on the topic

The science of love - a series of articles about current research on relationships

"10 comics that show what polyamorous love is really like"

Reduced grey matter when falling in love - What??  According to this research, those early in a romantic relationship have less grey matter in a specific region in the brain.   So, if you have that area lesioned, will you fall in love with the first person you see after the operation?

"Why love literally hurts" - an APS Observer article looking at the neural link between social and physical pain [added 8/5/13]

New love - interesting New York Times article on the research of new love [added 8/5/13]

"Who says 'I love you' first in a relationship?" - [added 7/2/12]

"Love is blind. Your friends aren't." - Blog entry describes research on whether you can predict your own relationship's breakup better than your friends can. [added 1/29/12]

"Love is abstract, but sex is concrete" - Here is some interesting research on how generating abstract versus concrete construals can affect how we think about relationships. If you have some difficulty explaining the concept of construals to your students, this example provides a nice way of describing the concept.
[added 1/29/12]

"Does falling in love make us more creative?" - "A new study demonstrates that thinking about love--but not about sex--causes us to think more 'globally,' making it easier to come up with new ideas." [added 1/18/10]

What does new love look like? - a New York Times article describing some research in which brain scans were conducted of newly-in-love individuals while they were looking at pictures of their beloved [added 7/06/07]


How can couples maintain sexual desire?

The orgasm gap - Interesting series of studies find that both men and women believe that men are more entitled to experience an orgasm than are women.

The hookup culture in college

“Sex comes before romance in relationships” - See, social psychology really IS the study of the obvious.

 Does more sex go with a better relationship? - It may depend if you ask explicitly or implicitly.

It's the cuddling, stupid - Research has attempted to identify the primary reasons why more sex is correlated with greater happiness.

Why the sexual double standard? - Interesting discussion of why promiscuous men are studs while promiscuous women are sluts [added 8/5/13]

"Love is abstract, but sex is concrete" - Here is some interesting research on how generating abstract versus concrete construals can affect how we think about relationships. If you have some difficulty explaining the concept of construals to your students, this example provides a nice way of describing the concept. [added 1/29/12]

Sexual infidelity - "Research has documented that most men become much more jealous about sexual infidelity than they do about emotional infidelity. Women are the opposite, and this is true all over the world." The prevailing theory is an evolutionary one: "Men learned over eons to be hyper-vigilant about sex because they can never be absolutely certain they are the father of a child, while women are much more concerned about having a partner who is committed to raising a family." This new research, however, suggests a different explanation. [added 2/7/10]

95% of Americans have had pre-marital sex - An extensive review of data from the Guttmacher Institute finds that "by age 20, 77% of respondents had had sex, 75% had had premarital sex, and 12% had married; by age44, 95% of respondents (94% of women, 96% of men, and 97% of those who had ever had sex) had had premarital sex. Even among those who abstained until at least age 20, 81% had had premarital sex by age 44. Among cohorts of women turning 15 between 1964 and 1993, at least 91% had had premarital sex by age 30. Among those turning 15 between 1954 and 1963, 82% had had premarital sex by age 30, and 88% had done so by age 44." [added 12/30/06]


What are the most effective flirting techniques? - I almost did not share this link. Read the next entry to see why.

Should you keep or delete online material after you break up? - "In surveying over 200 adults in the United States, we found that people who held onto digital items from their previous relationship struggled more to adjust to the end of their relationship. But some people found themselves keeping quite a few items while simultaneously deleting a trove of digital content. These individuals were also less adjusted. Moreover, people who were nostalgic reported being more likely to hold onto digital items, which in turn led them to adjust less well to the end of their relationship."

"Phone calls create stronger bonds than text-based communications"

"Your first date: Make sure your genes fit" - "People can now check that their genes fit. Yep, genes -- as in our DNA -- before going on a first date." [added 2/17/15]

Could you date a Democrat/Republican/Libertarian...?[added 1/29/12]

Dating equation: half your age + 7 years - "A common rule of thumb, at least on the internet, is that it’s okay to be interested in someone 'half your age plus seven' years. According to this rule, it would not be creepy for a 30 year old to date a 22 year-old, but an 18 year-old would be off-limits. Although this is a fun rule of thumb, what does research say about age preferences for potential mates?" [added 1/29/12]

Mimicry during speed dating - "Women hoping to appeal to speed-dating partners should try subtly mimicking the words and body-language of their dates. That's according to Nicholas Gueguen whose new study shows that women who mimic are rated by men as more sexually attractive." [added 1/18/10]

Speed dating - good article describing how the phenomenon of speed dating has provided a wealth of opportunities for research [added 7/11/09]

Online Dating

Online dating is changing the nature of society

Dating apps are changing

“Online dating is heaven — and hell” - “Having many options to choose from is appealing to anyone who is searching for something, and even more so if you are trying to find something—or someone—special. Not surprisingly, online dating platforms are exceptionally popular.  One out of three adults in the U.S. has used an online dating site or app, and more people are finding their partners online than through any of the ‘traditional’ pathways to love such as meeting people through friends or at work or school.  So, online dating clearly works. However, if it is so easy to find love on dating sites and apps, why are there more single people in the Western world today than ever before? And why do users of the dating platforms often report feelings of ‘Tinder fatigue’ and ‘dating burnout’?"

How Tinder changed dating - an interesting essay on how dating was quite different not so long ago

Too many fish in the sea - Sometimes too much choice is overwhelming, particularly with online dating.  Maybe rekindling is the way to go.

"Dating apps linked to rise in interracial marriages" (1:52)

"Why do people swipe right (or left) on Tinder" - a nice infographic describing some research on the question

Who seeks out whom on dating sites? - Does my own perceived social mate value affect it?  Does the matching hypothesis hold?

Couples increasingly meet online - David Myers addresses a number of issues related to how the Internet has changed our lives, but I put it here because I really like the graph he included on this topic.

We don't trust the "perfect" online dating profile - a little too perfect

"The science behind 3 popular dating apps" - [added 8/5/13]

Online dating - Review research about dealing with all the choices [added 1/12/13]

Online dating - This blog entry provides a good compilation of research on online dating. [added 10/30/10]

Online dating - interesting blog entry about how online dating has been frustrating, leading to some new approaches [added 6/6/08]

Marriage and Divorce

Happy wife, happy life OR happy spouse, happy house?

"What if friendship, not marriage, was at the center of life?"

Love and marriage - a number of good articles from APS on the topic

Funny tweets about living with a spouse

28 humorous tweets about marriage

"Dating apps linked to rise in interracial marriages" (1:52)

"How self _expression_ replaced love as the most important part of a marriage" - interesting historical essay by Eli Finkel about the evolution of marriage in the U.S.

"What's it like to be engaged in the 21st century?" - The fine folks (researchers) at Science of Relationships in collaboration with the Loving Lab (awww) at the University of Texas at Austin are studying this underinvestigated question.  They will be releasing results on the Science of Relationships site in the coming days, but they offer a nice infographic with their main questions and a sneak peak at some of their results at the above link.

Can a good marriage make you healthier? - "As the scientists report in a forthcoming issue of the journal Psychological Science. Perceived responsiveness was associated with both steeper cortisol slope and higher wakeup cortisol level. Importantly, this link between responsiveness and healthy cortisol was driven, at least in part, by diminishing negative emotions over the decade. In other words, believing that one’s partner cares—this perception leads to a decline in negative emotions, which in turn affects cortisol—and ultimately health."

Negative effects of emotional suppression - "The team found marital quality decreased over the study period to the extent that husbands suppressed their emotions during that time."

How to handle divorce - Two researchers at Science of Relationships bravely discuss their impending divorce and what research suggests are the best ways for them to deal with it. [added 2/17/15]

"Marriage approval versus legal status" - a great graph from xkcd comics [added 2/17/15]

Heredity and marital satisfaction - I always thought my wife looked cute in those genes. [added 2/12/15]

Unconscious, rather than conscious, evaluations good predictors of marriage satisfaction - Or as the author of this article, Ben Le, states, "our unconscious feelings about our partners might be the Magic 8-Ball when it comes to future marriage satisfaction." [added 2/18/14]

When husbands provide sensitive support - ... it benefits the relationship [added 8/5/13]

"Lack of matching between partners predicts divorce" - [added 1/12/13]

Is cohabitation detrimental to marriage? - Dylan Selterman, at Science of Relationships, provides a nice review of the controversy and what the research actually says. [added 7/2/12]

"The states of marriage and divorce" - This Pew Research Center report is a state-by-state analysis of the current status of marriage and divorce. [added 1/18/10]

Precursor of healthy adult marriages? - A report from the Rand Corporation looks at adolescent romantic relationships as precursors of healthy adult marriages. [added 12/1/07]

  Has the Barbie movie led to relationship break-ups?

  What makes singles happy? - Good discussion of the stereotypes of singles

  Couples feel closer after indulging in unhealthy behaviors together - Yes, we can definitely bond over shared "negative" experiences.

  Enjoying solitude - Who does it? Why do they do it? How do they do it? If you just broke up, you might want to read this article.

  The challenges of breaking up in the social media world we live in

  Which type of person is most likely to try and steal your romantic partner? - You're welcome. Now you know.

  Same-sex married couples handle stress better than different-sex couples

  The impact of optimism on romantic relationships

  How do you end a relationship? - Saying goodbye to loved ones, ghosting someone, etc.

  Appreciation may offset unequal chores for couples - Interesting. I wonder how far appreciation will go?

  Romantic partners are fairly accurate judges of partner's abilities

  If you could ask someone about one thing that motivates them - which motive might you ask about? This interesting research surveyed people about this question. The motive that people most wanted to know about was caring for family members, with maintaining a long-lasting romantic relationship as a close second.

  Relationship dealbenders, not dealbreakers, perhaps - Romantic dealbreakers, like laziness and living too far away, may be "dealbenders" when it comes to committed relationships. In the study, participants viewed a series of story scenarios about a new relationship. Dealbreakers were randomly assigned to be present or not, and participants were given the option to end the relationship or proceed after each scenario. The result: it usually took several potential dealbreakers before participants were willing to leave.

  Facebook and your relationships - This infographic can be a good discussion starter in class.

  People who move a lot attach more importance to their romantic relationships - The team finds that those who have moved away from their place of birth or who have frequently moved throughout their life are more likely to see their partners as central to their lives.

  Your conversation partner is reflecting on your conversation longer than you think

  Is warmth a safety signal? - Perhaps warm people make us feel safe.  Apparently, these clever studies suggest that physical warmth may have the same effect.

Family relationships - Here are a number of articles on different aspects of family relationships, from APS.

The hookup culture in college

A shared reality is a key component to relationships

What does making eye contact mean in a conversation? - “In the new study, by using pupil dilation as a measure of synchrony during unstructured conversation, psychologist Thalia Wheatley and graduate student Sophie Wohltjen found that the moment of making eye contact marks a peak in shared attention—and not the beginning of a sustained period of locked gazes. Synchrony, in fact, drops sharply after looking into the eyes of your interlocutor and only begins to recover when you and that person look away from each other. “Eye contact is not eliciting synchrony; it’s disrupting it,” says Wheatley, senior author of the paper.”

Did (does) the pandemic lockdown affect relationship intimacy? - “In a study of dating and married couples in India who were surveyed before and after India's COVID-19 lockdown, relationship satisfaction, love, intimacy, and passion were significantly lower post-lockdown compared with pre-lockdown.” PANDEMIC

"Couples remain committed to relationship after becoming new parents"

We tend to be more supportive than oppositional on social media - even if we disagree with the opinion stated

 We're not that picky - It is just much easier to continue progressing a relationship than ending it.  "Increasing investment and commitment to a romantic partner feels relatively easy and effortless, whereas decisions that halt or end relationships feel difficult and painful. That is, it feels easier to commit than to pull back from a relationship, at least in the short term. This progression bias may help people work through challenges in relationships, but it may also leave people in relationships that are not ideal."

"_expression_ of affection through touch across cultures" - "Do people all over the world kiss their partners and hug their friends? Is it common to stroke children? Presumably, culture influences our touch behaviors but how? And if there are differences between cultures, why do these exist?"

Dunbar’s number deconstructed - “The Oxford evolutionary psychologist Robin Dunbar is best known for his namesake “Dunbar’s number,” which he defines as the number of stable relationships people are cognitively able to maintain at once.”  That number was originally 150.  The first link is to some research that analyzes the accuracy of that number.  Here is a link to a recent interview of Dunbar about his number.

"Resolving arguments can prevent bad feelings from lingering" - So, why won't my wife just admit I'm right?  Apparently, she would feel a lot better.

The value of connecting - "The moral of the story: 'Prosociality' doesn’t just brighten others’ days, it brightens one’s own. When the pandemic ends, and our facial expressions are no longer masked, we will surely savor our renewed connections—even our micro connections." PANDEMIC

"How not to tank your relationship during quarantine" - PANDEMIC

Articles on family relationships - from APS

“In romantic relationships, people do indeed have a ‘type’” - “Researchers show that people do indeed have a 'type' when it comes to dating, and that despite best intentions to date outside that type -- for example, after a bad relationship -- some will gravitate to similar partners.”

“I, you, or we: Pronouns provide hints to romantic attachment styles”

Include your partner in social media posts - “Self-disclosure on social media can bring more harm than good to romantic relationships, causing intimacy and satisfaction to drop, a new study published in PLOS ONE has found. But there’s also a simple remedy: include your partner in your posts.”

Does “the internet know you better than your spouse”? - After reading the article, go ask your spouse that question.

“Commitment readiness predicts relationship success”

“Having poor quality relationships is associated with greater distress than having too few”

“Sex comes before romance in relationships” - See, social psychology really IS the study of the obvious.

Surprise reason why some people are reluctant to break up - Nope, I’m not telling you.  It’s a surprise.

Do you have “monogamy maintenance strategies”?  Are they working? - This blog entry discusses research investigating which strategies might be successful in avoiding infidelity and which may not.

Couples who diet (or don’t) together… - … can still see a benefit for the partner even if the other partner is not trying to diet.

To rekindle or not to rekindle - This brief blog entry reviews some research on whether it is a good choice to try and revive an earlier relationship.

Most effective ways to make up - probably easier than rekindling

15 questions to evaluate your current relationship - Research-based questions!  Maybe no rekindling is necessary!

“People with low self-esteem really do have less responsive partners”

“Do romantic partners help or hurt goal pursuit?” - “When it comes to supporting a (female) partner, actions speak louder than words. Try thinking of concrete ways that others have helped you pursue your goals, and do what you can to help others pursue their goals as well.”

The importance of interdependence in relationship success

Pumpkin Spice Latte! - What's its connection to relationships?  Grab a warm one and have a read.

Can classical conditioning help long-distance relationships? - Interesting study of military marriages which endure long deployments of one member of the marriage

 Does more sex go with a better relationship? - It may depend if you ask explicitly or implicitly.

Attractive people have shorter relationships, more interest in alternative partners

How to feel authentic in a relationship

It's the cuddling, stupid - Research has attempted to identify the primary reasons why more sex is correlated with greater happiness.

"How our partners make us great" - This research identifies some variables in our partners which might predict our well being.

 Men can apparently be trained to be better judges of women's sexual interest

One perspective on the modern single woman through comics

How your brain responds to rejection - "Immediately after we've been shunned, a new study shows our brains engage a subtle mechanism that alters our sense of whether other people are making eye contact with us, so that we think it is more likely that they are looking our way."

"Psychology predicts where your relationship is headed!" - Just send me $25.00 and I will....

"Does frequent sex lead to better relationships?" - Newlywed couples who have a lot of sex don't report any greater happiness explicitly, but implicitly they do.  I think the lesson here is if you are going to get married, marry a newlywed!

"Responsive partners show two kinds of empathy"

More subtle forms of relationship aggression - Who is more likely to spread negative rumors about their partner, or exclude them from social circles, or withhold affection, and what effect does it have?

When is conflict in a relationship not a problem? - Wait, seriously, there is an answer to that question?  Apparently, yes. If you feel understood by your partner you can weather conflicts much more easily.  Oh, that sounds easy.

"Women copy other women's mate-choices" - "It is one of life's great secrets: women don't look for handsome men, they look for men with beautiful women."

Top 10 relationship dealbreakers - Research with college students found the most significant dealbreakers when it comes to forming a short-term or long-term relationship.  Additionally, dealbreakers appear to be more important than dealmakers.  Do your students agree?

Relationship styles in the movie Frozen - Jana Lembke of Science of Relationships analyzes the attachment styles of the two sisters in Frozen.

No Girlfriend Comics - A series of comic strips of a character who just broke up with his girlfriend captures some relatable moments.

Phubbing! - Have you ever done it with your loved one?  You know what I'm talking about.  Snubbing him/her with your cellphone. Examples of "phubbing" include "My partner places his or her cellphone where they can see it when we are together." "My partner keeps his/her cellphone in their hand when he or she is with me."  Phubbed again!

Can earthquakes also crumble relationships? - Sound weird, but this fascinating research suggests it is plausible.  If you were standing on one leg you thought your relationship was as well.  Got to love that embodied cognition.

"What do people do on Facebook when they are breaking up?"

"Do your preferences for a romantic partner influence your actual choice?"

Redefining self-concept after a break-up - Research found that "taken together, these findings suggest that the failure to redefine the self post-break-up contributes to greater breakup related distress."

Texting, sexting and avoidant attachment - "In short, if you’re with an avoidant person, they might not text you much. But when they do send messages, they are more likely to be sexual."

Commitment in relationships often requires executive control

"Motivational distortion" in relationships - "At least that’s the theory offered by psychological scientist Edward Lemay of the University of Maryland, who has been studying what he calls “motivational distortion” in relationships. According to Lemay, our desire to bond to another person in a close, committed relationship is so strong that it can bias our thinking—distorting attention and memory and interpretation so that we see and believe what we want to be true. At the first International Convention of Psychological Science, this week in Amsterdam, Lemay discussed his and others’ work on this powerful cognitive bias."

Individual goal-minded pursuit and your relationship - "The implemental mindset that you’re in once you’ve chosen to pursue a goal makes you more single-minded and less inclined to pursue other goals, especially if focusing on those goals could conflict with your chosen goal. So goals to improve or maintain your relationship will take a backseat to the pursuit of the personal goal. If the relationship seems good, then you’ll just let it be and not try to work on it because you assume your relationship will be fine. In contrast, if the relationship seems bad, then you’ll also let it be and not work on it because it’s hopeless. The authors conducted three additional studies to test their hypothesis that this one-sided view makes people less inclined to work on their relationships." [added 2/17/15]

"Cold-shouldering a partner's successes leaves relationships on ice" - [added 2/17/15]

"Relationship visibility on Facebook?" - Can you tell when someone on Facebook is in a relationship? [added 2/17/15]

Gender differences in flirting motivation - "Big surprise: men’s flirting is more motivated by sex, while women’s flirting is more motivated by having fun or becoming closer to another person." [added 2/17/15]

I don't like you, but... - This research suggests that we sometimes end up with incompatible partners in relationships because it is just too hard to reject others. [added 2/17/15]

The importance of buffering to relationships - In one study, "Anxious partners felt more negative emotions and were less accommodating, but their partners displayed more accommodating strategies if they were themselves more committed to the relationship. And these accommodations led the anxious partner to become more accepting and positive during the tense conversation. In other words, buffering had immediate benefits, allaying fears and creating a more constructive emotional dynamic." [added 2/12/15]

Who's more likely to be unfaithful? Avoidant people - Nathan DeWall reports on research he and his colleagues conducted: "1. Avoidant people—those who keep others at arm’s length, prefer to depend on themselves instead of others, and feel uncomfortable getting emotionally close to their partners—are more likely to engage infidelity. In one set of studies, my colleagues and I recruited people in relationships, measured their level of avoidance, and showed:

Their eyes gravitate toward attractive alternatives to their romantic partner.
They report more positive attitudes toward infidelity
They report more intentions to engage infidelity
They report engaging in infidelity more often than others
This effect is true for both men and women.

2. A lack of commitment explains why avoidant people engage in more infidelity. Avoidant people dislike getting close to others. Hence, they have a tough time feeling strong relationship commitment. Their lack of commitment might make avoidant people feel safe and secure. But it also weakens the commitment that often keeps urges to engage in infidelity at bay." [added 2/12/15]

Who's consensually non-monogamous? Avoidant people - What is consensually non-monogamous? "This is a psychological term researchers use to describe people who engage in more than one romantic relationships simultaneously, and whose relationship partners know and approve." 4-5% of people report being in that category. So, do avoidant people in monogamous relationships believe that they are really being unfaithful when they are unfaithful? [added 2/12/15]

Using humor during an argument - can be helpful [added 2/12/15]

Breakup cartoons - In case you need one - Would sending a breakup cartoon count as a good way to break up with someone? Would they get it? [added 2/12/15]

Fear of being single - good blog entry on the topic [added 2/12/15]

Do you want a happy or sad breakup song? - After a non-interpersonal loss people prefer listening to happy music, but prefer sad music after an interpersonal loss. [added 8/5/13]

Why the sexual double standard? - Interesting discussion of why promiscuous men are studs while promiscuous women are sluts [added 8/5/13]

"Chemistry + Timing = Relationship Success" - a good discussion of these elements in a Science of Relationships blog entry [added 8/5/13]

Relationship humor - [added 8/5/13]

"Catfishing" and relationships - Don't know yet what "catfishing" is? Read all about it in this blog entry. [added 8/5/13]

Seven ways to improve your relationship - A good infographic summarizing research on the topic -- clicking on the image takes you to an article that elaborates on it. Surprisingly, "don't get catfished" is not one of the seven. [added 8/5/13]

"What implicit processes tell us about romantic attachment" - another good APS Observer article [added 8/5/13]

Relationship humor - more here; more here; more here - When I want my dose of relationship humor I always turn to Science of Relationships. Unlike relationships, it never disappoints. [added 8/5/13]

What makes a "jealous type"? - good blog entry on jealousy [added 8/5/13]

A drum-off - interesting little video of some relationship conversation through drumming [added 8/5/13]

Consensual non-monogamy - [added 8/5/13]

Does gift giving undermine relationships? - [added 1/12/13]

"T-Rex did not evolve for romance" [added 1/12/13]

Do we like funny in possible mates? - good discussion of some research on what men and women find attractive in the opposite sex in terms of humor [added 1/12/13]

Invited over for "muffins" - Ahh, what did we do before Science of Relationships? [added 1/12/13]

Some relationship humor - and more, and more - from Science of Relationships [added 1/12/13]

How to make "couples friends" - Here's an interesting blog entry about how couples can improve the quality of their life and their relationship if they find other couples with which to be friends. [added 7/2/12]

A little relationship humor - Along with thoughtful and interesting blog entries like the above, Science of Relationships also throws in a good does of relationship humor as well. Just like any good relationship should. And here's a little more humor. [added 7/2/12]

"Is watching The Bachelorette bad for your relationship?" - interesting blog post from Science of Relationships [added 7/2/12]

Relationship humor - Okay, I found it amusing. [added 7/2/12]

Valentine's Day humor - [added 7/2/12]

"Language style predicts relationship longevity" - "Recently, researchers have found that similarity in communication patterns predicts mutual romantic interest and relationship stability 3 months down the road. And we’re not even talking about similar use of big fancy words. Rather, it’s the small words that we would generally consider “fillers”, such as pronouns (I, her, that), articles (a, an, the), conjunctions (and, but, because), and the like that matter. In what researchers call “language style matching’” (or LSM, for short), individuals’ conversations may begin to subtly become synchronous. Sometimes our conversations are high in LSM, which means there is a lot of matching in language use, whereas other conversations are low in LSM, which means we are speaking to one another in quite different styles. In the researchers’ first study, 40 speed-dating couples had their 4-minute interaction recorded, and transcriptions of these interactions were entered into a language analysis computer program. Couples who had higher LSM (again, they matched in their use of pronouns, articles, conjunctions, etc.) were more likely to show mutual romantic interest in one another. This effect was not due to the total number of words being spoken in the conversation (that is, it’s not because two “Chatty Cathys” were paired up and talking each other’s ears off)." [added 1/29/12]

Happiness vs. Time in relationships - another good cartoon/graph [added 1/29/12]

More committed couples use more plural nouns - Warning: Scary picture.
[added 1/29/12]

"Twilight" and relationship violence - Another good blog entry from the Science of Relationships site -- what effect might all these teenage vampire movies/shows/stories have on relationship abuse?
[added 1/29/12]

Attachment style and long-lasting relationships - Does a more secure attachment style lead to better success in maintaining long-term relationships? Like relationships themselves, it's complicated. [added 1/29/12]

Top 15 sources of conflict in relationships - From the excellent blog Science of Relationships, created by Ben Le, Gary Lewandowski, and Tim Loving. That's right, Dr. Loving.
[added 1/29/12]

"The complicated psychology of revenge" - from the APS Observer
[added 1/29/12]

Relationship humor! - Some amusing cartoons found at the excellent blog Science of Relationships; a second one, and a third.
[added 1/29/12]

Most romantic U.S. city? - I always like to see interesting ways of measuring things. Most romantic city? The one that rented the highest percentage of romantic comedies through Redbox (a kiosk often located in front of or inside stores from which someone can rent a movie). Follow the link to find out if it is your city... [added 1/29/12]

Humor and attraction - "A recent study indicates that men are more likely than women to use humor when getting to know potential romantic partners, and that women use sense of humor as a criteria for evaluating partners more than men. In addition, when analyzing online personal ads, researchers found that men tended to mention their own sense of humor, while women stated a preference for a funny partner. Finally, a woman’s rating of a man’s sense of humor predicts her romantic interest in him. However, a man's perception of a woman’s sense of humor is unimportant for his desire to get to know her." [added 1/29/12]

A couple good relationship cartoons - first one; second one - I added the new site Science of Relationships to the front page of this site. The site has already produced a lot of good blog entries commenting on the topic. They also occasionally include some good cartoons like those above. [added 8/18/11]

"Are the men of the African Aka tribe the best fathers in the world?" - [added 5/30/11]

"Which is worse.... - your partner having a heterosexual or a homosexual affair?" Men and women answer differently. [added 12/24/10]

Providing "invisible" support to a loved one - "Recipients whose partners provided more invisible emotional support such as reassurance or expressions of concern, but believed they had received less emotional support, experienced greater declines in anger and anxiety. This was also true for invisible practical support such as advice or direct offers of assistance. Additionally, in the case of invisible practical support, recipients experienced increases in self-efficacy." [added 12/24/10]

"Romantic songs make women more open to dates" - [added 7/21/10]

Sexual infidelity - "Research has documented that most men become much more jealous about sexual infidelity than they do about emotional infidelity. Women are the opposite, and this is true all over the world." The prevailing theory is an evolutionary one: "Men learned over eons to be hyper-vigilant about sex because they can never be absolutely certain they are the father of a child, while women are much more concerned about having a partner who is committed to raising a family." This new research, however, suggests a different explanation. [added 2/7/10]

"The hidden purpose of chat-up lines" - Why do men use pick-up lines? One study investigates that "chat-up lines may be a way for men to select for a particular type of woman." [10/13/07]

The quest for romance - An interesting essay in the Feb. 2007 issue of the APS Observer summarizes some research. [added 7/7/07]

95% of Americans have had pre-marital sex - An extensive review of data from the Guttmacher Institute finds that "by age 20, 77% of respondents had had sex, 75% had had premarital sex, and 12% had married; by age44, 95% of respondents (94% of women, 96% of men, and 97% of those who had ever had sex) had had premarital sex. Even among those who abstained until at least age 20, 81% had had premarital sex by age 44. Among cohorts of women turning 15 between 1964 and 1993, at least 91% had had premarital sex by age 30. Among those turning 15 between 1954 and 1963, 82% had had premarital sex by age 30, and 88% had done so by age 44." [added 12/30/06]

MySpace - Confused about how MySpace and other social networking sites work? Here's one explanation of MySpace from the How Stuff Works web site. [added 7/6/06]

"Romance in America" - The first report is a summary of survey data of young singles collected by the Pew Research Center. [added 7/6/06]

Alcohol in relationships - "Alcohol problems in intimate relationships: Identification and intervention" is a guide from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. [added 1/8/06]



Frenemies and toxic relationships

“1 in 7 people have dumped their friends over Covid-19 vaccine stance” PANDEMIC

Coming out of the pandemic gives us the change to rearrange our friendships - Whom do you want to see less/more of? PANDEMIC

"The pandemic has erased entire categories of friendship" PANDEMIC

"What if friendship, not marriage, was at the center of life?"

So, your friend commits an immoral act… - Do you turn them in or protect them?  Apparently, we most often would protect them.  What about a subscriber?  I’ll get back to you on that.

“Female – but not male – friends are increasingly derogated … - … as the number of their sexual partners increases”

Status symbols may repel rather than attract friends

"To please your friends tell them what they already know"

"Two key factors that influence adolescent girls' relationships"

We laugh differently with friends than with strangers

"An unexpected key to kids' popularity" - Nope, not being a psychology teacher's kid. You'll have to read it. [added 2/17/15]

When do we offer versus request support? - Casual friends offer support; close friends offer and request support. [added 8/5/13]

Disclosing to downers - "Have you ever wanted to share good news with friends but were afraid they would rain on your parade because they’re downers? Researchers recently discovered that people avoid disclosing positive information to low self-esteem friends and romantic partners in order to avoid a negative interaction (e.g., the 'downer' pointing out the downside). Interestingly, we don’t keep the good news to ourselves to protect our close others’ feelings – we primarily focus on our own outcomes!" [added 1/29/12]

Hug is the new handshake - Interesting New York Times article describes an apparent trend in which teenagers regular hug each other as greetings, including between males. [added 7/11/09]


Loneliness epidemic - A good blog entry from David Myers

Who is more likely to be estranged from a parent? - Compared to heterosexual respondents, gay, lesbian, and bisexual respondents were more likely to be estranged from fathers. White respondents were more likely than participants of other races to be estranged from their mothers but less likely to be estranged from their fathers.

We can distinguish between touches meant to convey attention, sadness, love, and more

"Can sharing bad news strengthen social ties?"

The orgasm gap - Interesting series of studies find that both men and women believe that men are more entitled to experience an orgasm than are women.

When people click they respond faster to each other - When two people are on the same page in a conversation, sometimes their minds just 'click.' A new study demonstrates that clicking isn't just a figure of speech but is predicted by 'response times' in a conversation or the amount of time between when one person stops talking and the other person starts.

Are we moving from social distancing to social bubbles? - An interesting sociological take on how the pandemic might shape our new social contacts and social groups PANDEMIC

"Social distancing prevents infections, but it can have unintended consequences" PANDEMIC

"How not to tank your relationship during quarantine" PANDEMIC

Sleep better with your partner’s smell - Exactly.  Who needs your partner nearby as long as you have their scent.  This fascinating study found you can gain 9 minutes of sleep a night if you use a t-shirt from your partner as your pillowcase compared to the t-shirt of a stranger.

“Inequality in social relationships” - Interesting discussion of some of the manifestations of inequality in society

“How negativity can kill a relationship”

Do we seek the warmth of human contact on cold days? - And are we less likely to socialize when we are feeling warm?  This clever study investigated these questions and the failures of past replications.

Caring for loved ones our number one concern - An international team of researchers led by evolutionary and social psychologists from Arizona State University (ASU) surveyed 7,000 people from 27 countries about what matters most to them. Respondents consistently rated family care and mate retention as the most important motivations in their lives, the researchers report. The findings replicated in regions with collectivist cultures, such as South Korea and China, and in regions with individualistic cultures like Europe and the United States.”

“Does small chat or deep conversations make us happier?”

Would you be happy/unhappy if a family member married a Republican/Democrat? - interesting research

How to please people in seven easy comics

Social warmth linked to physical warmth - More embodied cognition research -- can drinking that warm cup of coffee increase your social connection to others? [added 2/12/15]

"The power of hello" - Sam Sommers makes a good case for the simple acts of smiling and saying "hello." [added 7/2/12]

The study of smiling - very interesting story in the APS Observer on the many facets of smiling research and what it all means [added 12/24/10]

"Admiring celebrities can help improve self-esteem" - What? Yes, this study found that engaging in these "fake" relationships with celebrities (called parasocial relationships) can benefit those with low self-esteem. [added 8/09/08]

The social regulation of emotion - In the latest issue of the APS Observer, there were a number of excellent articles reporting on some interesting talks at the 2007 APS convention that should be good reads for your students. [10/13/07]

Sexual orientation - research site by authors

"Social Behavior Transformed With One New Gene" - report from ScienceDaily (1999)

Physical Attraction


Face masks make people more attractive? PANDEMIC - Yes, that is what they found. See the interesting research.
Two beauty centers in the brain? - This meta-analysis finds that one part of our brain responds to beautiful faces and another responds to beautiful art.

How to make your face look younger - Contrast!  Our brains love it.  How to make it look older?  Have kids.

The most attractive facial feature on women... - Besides contrast.  The lips!  According to this research they are a big winner.  That's where our eyes go most.

We prefer brands with faces, especially if we are lonely - Would we be more willing to read the journal articles in which the authors' faces were included?

Chicago Face Database - a large, normed, freely-available database of faces for research use

"Familiar faces look happier than unfamiliar ones"

"Women find this much facial hair most attractive" - Check your face and then check out this research.

The handsome son effect - "Women rated men's faces as more attractive when they were shown alongside a good-looking son."

Mothers' caregiving and later romantic success - interesting long-term study using a novel measure [added 2/17/15]

Mr. Right or Mr. Right Now (nice line, Nathan) - Your eye gaze tells whether your mind is thinking romance (face) or sex (body). [added 2/17/15]

"The 10 most interesting dating studies of 2014" - an infographic [added 2/17/15] - Whoa! This is a cool site. Created by a couple researchers, this site provides access to a lot of studies readers can participate in, cool demos in which you can average different faces or transform faces by criterion such as age, and more. Here are the results of one of the researchers' studies in which they created an average woman's face for every country. Here is a story about this research. H/T to Marianne Miserandino. [added 2/18/14]

Battle of the titans: Familiarity vs. Averageness - It's cool when researchers come up with ways to pit two powerful phenomena against each other. Who wins this cage match? [added 8/5/13]

The U.K.'s most beautiful female face? - [added 7/2/12]

What determines female facial beauty? - A "new golden ratio" is purportedly found in this study: "Female faces were judged more attractive when the vertical distance between their eyes and the mouth was approximately 36 percent of the face's length, and the horizontal distance between their eyes was approximately 46 percent of the face's width. Interestingly, these proportions correspond with those of an average face." [added 1/18/10]

Face databases - If you are doing research on faces, or want to use the stimuli for other purposes [added 1/18/10]

With or without makeup - Marianne Miserandino passed along this interesting reminder of how carefully the famous and beautiful guard the perception of their beauty. The French version of Elle magazine has released covers of famous stars with and without makeup. [added 1/18/10]

Symmetry versus averageness - A summary of some good research continuing to look at these two factors in our perception of attractiveness -- the question addressed here is, how do you tease out these two factors independently? [added 7/11/09]

"Is it really impossible to ignore an attractive face?" - [added 7/11/09]

Can the next president have asymmetrical eyebrows? - amusing article from The Onion [added 4/20/08]

Cultural ideals predict judgments of attractiveness - That's from the neck down. From the neck up, biology plays a greater role.

Beauty enhancing is universal across cultures - Although, its form varies quite a bit across cultures, according to this large study.

“Why women feel pressured to shave” - a good review of some of the history of women and hair removal

Do cats make men more attractive? - an interesting study and one that raises some methodological questions you can discuss with your students

“No, not everyone is beautiful” - Interesting essay: “The knee-jerk response to jump in with ‘you’re beautiful’ when someone’s attractiveness is questioned bothers me because it ends up reinforcing the idea that if someone isn’t physically beautiful, they aren’t valuable. This, of course, was not the intention of those who were being supportive but, unfortunately, it unwittingly perpetuates that belief.”

“Your flaws are probably more attractive than you think they are”

Are women more attracted to dominant men when fertile? - New research brings this accepted finding into question.

High heels, attraction, and helping - Men are more attracted to and more likely to help women the higher their heels.

Attractiveness and income - Interesting study found an income disadvantage for those rated unattractive, but an income advantage for those rated VERY unattractive.

Why do attractive individuals earn more? - Perhaps not because they are attractive.  "Physically more attractive workers may earn more, not necessarily because they are more beautiful, but because they are healthier, more intelligent, and have better personality traits conducive to higher earnings, such as being more Conscientious, more Extraverted, and less Neurotic."

Attractive people have shorter relationships, more interest in alternative partners

"What make a person in uniform more attractive?"

Sorry men, tattoos don't make you more attractive to women - According to a study in Poland, men thought that tattooed men were more attractive, but women said no.  Women thought the tattooed men were worse prospects as partners or paents.  But women did think the tattooed men were healthier.

 Replication failure: The red effect - Are men more attracted to women wearing red?  Previous research suggested so.  These recent replications found no such evidence.  But were the data in a red font when they looked at them?

Good storytelling males seen as more attractive, higher status - It's like that time I...

For women, benefits of attractiveness at work primarily depending on good grooming - according to this study

"What the 'ideal' man's body looks like in 19 countries" - Plenty of examples like this of women's bodies -- now it's men's turn.

Physical appearance is, in part, socially constructed - Blog entry discusses gender differences in our never-ending efforts to display beauty. [added 2/17/15]

"Do women perceive other women in red as more sexually receptive?" - Men do. Do women do? [added 2/17/15]

Women in red seen as more sexually interested - "To understand why, Pazda and his colleagues conducted a simple experiment. They showed 25 men a photo of a single woman doctored to look, in different cases, like she was wearing either a red or white T-shirt. The researchers then asked the volunteers to gauge, on a scale from 1 to 9, how keen the model seemed to be on romance. In other words, the men answered the question: 'Is she interested in sex?' Men interpreted the red outfit as a signal that the woman was indeed more open to sexual advances. In fact, the guys tended to grade the woman's disposition to sex about 1 to 1.5 points higher when she was wearing a red rather than a white tee, Pazda and colleagues report online this month in the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology." [added 7/2/12]

Attractive students get better grades - Unfortunately this article confuses correlation and causation, but the results are interesting. [added 2/18/14]

Show some skin and others will think... - some significant and surprising things about you. Read about the interesting studies. [added 2/18/14]

The beer goggles effect - Do people appear more attractive after you have been drinking? Do you think you are more attractive? [added 2/18/14]

Are you more or less attractive than you think? - This blog entry describes a clever way of finding out, and the answer is..... [added 8/5/13]

What pickup lines work? - It depends! If the man is attractive and the woman is looking for a short-term relationship, the type of line didn't matter. But for a long-term relationship, women preferred direct and innocuous lines over cute or flippant lines. Men who use the more direct and innocuous lines are perceived as more trustworthy and intelligent. What do they mean by a cute pickup line? See here. [added 8/5/13]

Do men prefer butts or boobs? - I'm not going to say "It depends." I'm not going to say anything. I'll just let you read the research. [added 8/5/13]

And do women prefer.... - a full beard, heavy stubble, light stubble, or a cleanly shaven face? [added 8/5/13]

Or, he can just carry around a guitar case - very interesting study [added 8/5/13]

Humor and attractiveness - If you were asked which two items (from chocolate, hair spray, or a plastic bag) you would take to a deserted island and explain why, would you give a humorous response? Would that make you more attractive? [added 8/5/13]

Physical attractiveness, personality, and values - Sam Sommers reviews research finding that we believe physically attractive individuals are more conscientious, extraverted, and open to experience. Not true. However, the researchers found that physically attractive people did differ in their values. Specifically, they were more traditional and conformed more to societal expectations. [added 1/12/13]

Attractive? Depends on the context - Sam Sommers reviews some research that suggests whether we find someone attractive is also tied to the context in which we view that person. Hey, Sam, we get it: Situations Matter. Why don't you just write a book or something? [added 7/2/12]

One downside of attractiveness - Same-sex others reviewing your job application may respond more negatively to your attractiveness. Here's another link on the topic. [added 1/29/12]

Similarity and attraction - Sam Sommers provides a good summary of some research on how we are attracted (and want to sit by) similar others. [added 1/29/12]

Oxytocin boosts trust, and attractiveness in more masculine male faces - Interesting study -- more masculine males can be seen as more dangerous. But a shot of oxytocin up the nose caused both males and females to view the more masculine males as more attractive. [added 1/29/12]

Women rate happy men less attractive than proud men; opposite for women - I'm embarrassed to say that male shame was even more attractive than happy, smiling men to women. [added 8/18/11]

"Beauty is in the mind of the beholder" - a good article in the APS Observer reviewing research on what we find attractive and the benefits of beauty [added 8/18/11]

The medicalization of beauty - Using the new TV show, Bridalplasty, in which brides-to-be compete for cosmetic surgery, this blog entry explores how beauty, along with other phenomena, has become "medicalized." [added 5/30/11]

Attractiveness of leg length - Yes, we've measured eye width, cheekbone height, and all sorts of facial features in determining what we find attractive. Now we learn that "male and female silhouettes with short and excessively long legs were perceived as less attractive across all nations." [added 12/24/10]

Do Disney characters promote "beauty is good" stereotype? - abstract of article that suggests they just might [added 12/24/10]

Are we attracted to our relatives (and ourselves)? - Here is an interesting blog entry describing research suggesting that we are attracted to faces that look like ours and our relatives, perhaps suggesting that an incest taboo is "necessary" for that reason. [added 10/30/10]

Men on top, women on the bottom - "If you're hoping to increase your online appeal to the opposite sex, you might want to consider where on the screen you place your photo. A study that's in press at Social Cognition has shown that women rate men's photos as more attractive when they're placed near the top of the screen. By contrast, men rate women's photos as more attractive when they're located near the bottom of the screen." [added 1/18/10]

"Importance of attractiveness depends on where you live" - Urban? It matters. Rural? Not so much. [added 1/18/10]

"An unwanted kiss from a moral man" - This study asks would you rather receive an unwanted kiss from a moral man or a consensual kiss from an immoral one. [added 1/18/10]

"Chicks dig men in flashy cars" - "Previous studies have shown that male attractiveness can be enhanced by manipulation of status through, for example, the medium of costume. The present study experimentally manipulated status by seating the same target model (male and female matched for attractiveness) expressing identical facial expressions and posture in either a 'high status' (Silver Bentley Continental GT) or a 'neutral status' (Red Ford Fiesta ST) motor-car." [added 7/11/09]

Susan Boyle - Lots of good social psych in the Susan Boyle story. If you are not familiar with it read the above. More here.
[added 7/11/09]

"Ugly girl killed: Nation unshaken by not-so-tragic death" - An amusing article from the satirical online newspaper The Onion [added 12/30/06]

Beauty in the election process - a study "The looks of a winner: Beauty, gender, and electoral success" looks at the role of attractiveness in Finland's politics. [added 12/30/06]

Jamaican Symmetry Project - This is a very interesting project in which researchers "focus on the possibility that dancing ability may correlate with the dancer's degree of bodily symmetry, commonly used in evolutionary studies to measure developmental stability and hence genetic quality." Read what they found, and watch some of the dance video as well. Also read a related research article published in Nature. [added 2/22/06]

What is sexy? - A columnist notes that U.S. Patrick Fitzgerald showed up on a sexiest man list despite lacking "conventional" physically attractive traits. The columnist asks, "Is there a female equivalent to a 'sexy' Patrick Fitzgerald?" In other words, it raises the question of differences between what men and women find attractive. [added 1/14/06]

"Fertile women rate other women as uglier" - interesting article describing research about possible hormonal influences on attractiveness ratings [added 4/05/04]

Articles, Books, and Book Chapters (available online)
Book Chapters

Bartholomew, K., & Shaver, P. R. (1998). Methods of assessing adult attachment: Do they converge? In J. A. Simpson & W. S. Rholes (Eds.), Attachment theory and close relationships (pp. 25-45). New York: Guilford Press.

Brennan, K. A., Clark, C. L., & Shaver, P. R. (1998). Self-report measurement of adult romantic attachment: An integrative overview. In J. A. Simpson & W. S. Rholes (Eds.), Attachment theory and close relationships (pp. 46-76). New York: Guilford Press.

Finkel, E. J., & Fitzsimons, G. M. (in press). The effects of social relationships on self-regulation. In K. D. Vohs, & R. F. Baumeister (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

Fitzsimons, G. M., & Finkel, E. J. (in press). The effects of self-regulation on social relationships. In K. D. Vohs, & R. F. Baumeister (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

Fitzsimons, G. M., & Finkel, E. J. (in press). Outsourcing effort to close others. In L. Campbell, J. La Guardia, J. Olsen, & M. Zanna (Eds.), The 12th Ontario symposium: The Science of the Couple. Psychology Press: Philadelphia.

Morgan, H. J., & Shaver, P. R. (1999). Attachment processes and commitment to romantic relationships. In J. M. Adams & W. H. Jones (Eds.), Handbook of interpersonal commitment and relationship stability (pp. 109-124). New York: Plenum.

Swann, W. B., Jr., Chang-Schneider, C., & Angulo, S. (2007). Self-verification in relationships as an adaptive process. In J. Wood, A. Tesser & J. Holmes (Eds.) Self and Relationships, Psychology Press: New York.

Wegner, D. M., Giuliano, T., & Hertel, P. (1985). Cognitive interdependence in close relationships. In W. J. Ickes (Ed.), Compatible and incompatible relationships (pp. 253-276). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Wegner, D. M. & Lane, J. D. (1994). Secret relationships: The back alley to love. In R. Erber & R. Gilmour (Eds.), Theoretical frameworks for personal relationships (pp. 67-85). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Wegner, D. M., & Lane, J. D. (1995). From secrecy to psychopathology. In J. W. Pennebaker (Ed.), Emotion, disclosure, and health (pp. 25-46). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.


Acevedo, B. P., & Aron, A. (2009). Does a long-term relationship kill romantic love? Review of General Psychology, 13, 59-65.

Alonso-Arbiol, I., Shaver, P. R. & Yarnoz, S. (2002). Insecure attachment, gender roles, and interpersonal dependency in the Basque country. Personal Relationships, 9, 479-490.

Andreoletti, C., Zebrowitz, L.A., & Lachman, M.E. (2001). Physical appearance and control beliefs in young, middle-aged, and older adults. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 969-981.

Apicella, C. L., Feinberg, D. R., & Marlowe, F. W. (2007). Voice pitch predicts reproductive success in male hunter-gatherers. Biology Letters, 3, 682-684.

Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, Kathleen, D.(2004). Sexual Economics: Sex as female resource for social exchange in heterosexual interactions. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8, 339-363. [added 7/6/05]

Bearman, P. S., Moody, J., & Stovel, K. (2004). Chains of affection: The structure of adolescent romantic and sexual networks. American Journal of Sociology, 110, 44-91. [added 3/3/05] (See also university press release about article.)

Bleske, A., & Buss, D.M. (2000). Can men and women just be friends? Personal Relationships, 7, 131-151.

Bleske, A.L., & Buss, D.M. (2001). Opposite sex friendship: Sex differences and similarities in initiation, selection, and dissolution. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 1310-1323.

Bleske-Rechek, A., & Buss, D.M. (2006). Sexual strategies pursued and mate attraction tactics deployed. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 1299-1311.

Bosson, J. K., Johnson, A. B., Niederhoffer, K. & Swann, W. B. Jr. (2006). Interpersonal chemistry through negativity: Bonding by sharing negative attitudes about others. Personal Relationships, 13, 135-150.

Botwin, M., Buss, D. M., & Shackelford, T. K. (1997). Personality and mate preferences: Five factors in mate selection and marital satisfaction. Journal of Personality, 65, 107-136.

Buss, D. M. (1991). Conflict in married couples: Personality predictors of anger and upset. Journal of Personality, 59, 663-703.

Buss, D. M. (1992). Manipulation in close relationships: The five factor model of personality in interactional context. Journal of Personality, 60, 477-499.

Buss, D. M. (1994). The strategies of human mating. American Scientist, 82, 238-249.

Buss, D.M. (1996). Paternity uncertainty and the complex repertoire of human mating strategies. American Psychologist, 51, 161-162.

Buss, D.M. (1998). Sexual Strategies Theory: Historical origins and current status. Journal of Sex Research, 34, 19-31.

Buss, D.M. (2003). Sexual strategies: A journey into controversy. Psychological Inquiry, 14, 217-224.

Buss, D.M. (2006). Sexual selection and human mating strategies (letter to the editor). Science, 312, 690-691.

Buss, D.M. (2006). Strategies of human mating. Psychological Topics, 15, 239-260.

Buss, D. M., Abbott, M., Angleitner, A., Biaggio, A., Blanco-Villasenor, A., Bruchon Schweitzer, M [& 45 additional authors]. (1990). International preferences in selecting mates: A study of 37 societies. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 21, 5-47.

Buss, D.M. & Dedden, L.A. (1990). Derogation of competitors. Journal of Social & Personal Relationships, 7, 395-422.

Buss, D.M., & Haselton, M.G. (2005). The evolution of jealousy. Trends in Cognitive Science, 9, 506-507.

Buss, D.M. Larsen, R.J., & Westin, D. (1996). Sex differences in jealousy: Not gone, not forgotten, and not explained by alternative hypotheses. Psychological Science, 7, 373-375.

Buss, D. M., Larsen, R. J., Westen, D., & Semmelroth, J. (1992). Sex differences in jealousy: Evolution, physiology, and psychology. Psychological Science, 3, 251-255.

Buss, D. M., & Schmitt, D. P. (1993). Sexual Strategies Theory: An evolutionary perspective on human mating. Psychological Review, 100, 204-232.

Buss, D.M. & Schmitt, D.P. (1996). Strategic self-promotion and competition derogation: Sex and conflict effects on perceived effectiveness of mate attraction tactics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 1185-1204.

Buss, D.M., Shackelford, T.K. (1997). Susceptibility to infidelity in the first year of marriage. Journal of Research in Personality, 31, 193-221.

Buss, D.M., & Shackelford, T.K. (2008). Attractive women want it all: Good genes, economic investment, parenting proclivities, and emotional commitment. Evolutionary Psychology, 6, 134-146.

Buss, D.M., Shackelford, T.K., Chloe, J., Buunk, B.P., & Dijkstra, P. (2000). Distress about mating rivals. Personal Relationships, 7, 235-243.

Buss, D.M., Shackelford, T.K., Kirkpatrick, L.A., Chloe, J., Hasegawa, M., Hasegawa, T., & Bennett, K. (1999). Jealousy and beliefs about infidelity: Tests of competing hypotheses in the United States, Korea, and Japan. Personal Relationships, 6, 125-150.

Buss, D.M., & Shackelford, T.K., Kirkpatrick, L.A, Larsen, R.J. (2001). A half century of mate preferences: The cultural evolution of values. Journal of Marriage and Families, 63, 492-503.

Buss, D. M., Shackelford, T. K. & LeBlanc, G. J. (2000). Number of children desired and preferred spousal age difference: context-specific mate preference patterns across 37 cultures. Evolution and Human Behavior, 21, 323-331.

Buss, D.M., Shackelford, T.K., & McKibbin, W. F. (2008). The Mate Retention Inventory-Short Form (MRI-SF). Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 322-334.

Buunk, B.P., Angleitner, A., Obaid, V., & Buss, D.M. (1996). Sex differences in Jealousy in Evolutionary and Cultural Perspective: Tests from the Netherlands, Germany, and the United States. Psychological Science, 7, 359-363.

De La Ronde, C. & Swann, W. B. Jr. (1998). Partner verification: Restoring shattered images of our intimates. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 374-382.

de Vries, M., Holland, R., Chenier, T., Starr, M., & Winkielman, P. (2010). Happiness cools the warm glow of familiarity: Psychophysiological evidence that mood modulates the familiarity-affect link. Psychological Science, 21, 321-328.

Dunn, E. W., Huntsinger, J., Lun, J., Sinclair, S. (2008). The gift of similarity: How good and bad gifts influence relationships. Social Cognition, 26, 469-481.

Eastwick, P., Finkel, E. J., Mochon, D., & Ariely, D. (2007). Selective vs. unselective romantic desire: Not all reciprocity is created equal. Psychological Science, 18, 317-319.

Finkel, E. J., Burnette, J. L., & Scissors, L. E. (2007). Vengefully ever after: Destiny beliefs, state attachment anxiety, and forgiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Finkel, E. J., & Eastwick, P. W. (2009). Arbitrary social norms influence sex differences in romantic selectivity. Psychological Science, 20, 1290-1295.

Finkel, E. J., Eastwick, P. W., Karney, B. R., Reis, H. T., & Sprecher, S. (2012). Online dating: A critical analysis from the perspective of psychological science. Psychological Science In The Public Interest, 13, 3-66.

Finkel, E. J., Eastwick P. W. , & Matthews. (2007). Speed dating as an invaluable tool for studying romantic attraction: A methodological primer. Personal Relationships, 14, 149-166.

Fitzsimons, G. M. & Bargh, J. A. (2003). Thinking of you: Nonconscious pursuit of interpersonal goals associated with relationship partners. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 148-164.

Fitzsimons, G. M., & Finkel, E. J. (2011). Outsourcing self-regulation. Psychological Science, 22, 369-375.

Fraley, R. C., & Shaver, P. R. (2000). Adult romantic attachment: Theoretical developments, emerging controversies, and unanswered questions. Review of General Psychology, 4, 132-154.

Fraley, R. C., & Shaver, P. R. (1998). Airport separations: A naturalistic study of adult attachment dynamics in separating couples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 1198-1212.

Frei, J. R., & Shaver, P. R. (2002). Respect in close relationships: Prototype definition, self-report assessment, and initial correlates. Personal Relationships, 9, 121-139.

Gangestad, S.W., Haselton, M.G., & Buss, D.M. (2006). Evolutionary foundations of cultural variation: Evoked culture and mate preferences. Psychological Inquiry, 17, 75-95.

Greer, A., & Buss, D. M. (1994). Tactics for promoting sexual encounters. The Journal of Sex Research, 5, 185-201.

Greiling, H., Buss, D.M. (2000). Women's Sexual Strategies: The hidden dimension of extra pair mating. Personality and Individual Differences, 28, 929-963.

Haselton, M.G., & Buss, D.M. (2000). Error management theory: A new perspective on biases in cross-sex mind reading. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 81-91.

Haselton, M., Buss, D.M., Oubaid, V., & Angleitner, A. (2005). Sex, lies, and strategic interference: The psychology of deception between the sexes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 31, 3-23.

Haselton, M.G., & Gildersleeve, K. (2011). Can men detect ovulation? Current Directions in Psychological
Science, 20,

Haxby, J. V., Hoffman, E. Z., & Gobbini, M. I. (2000). The distributed human neural system for face perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 223-233.

Hazan, C., & Shaver, P. R. (1987). Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 511-524. [added 1/21/05]

Hill, S. E., & Buss, D. M. (2008). The mere presence of opposite-sex others on judgments of sexual and romantic desirability: Opposite effects for men and women. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 635-647.

Hill, S. E. & Reeve, H. K. (2004). Mating Games: the Evolution of Human Mating Transactions. Behavioral Ecology, 15, 748-756.

IJzerman, H., & Semin, G. (2009). The thermometer of social relations: Mapping social proximity on temperature. Psychological Science, 20, 1214-1220.

Ireland, M. E., Slatcher, R. B., Eastwick, P. W., Scissors, L. E., Finkel, E. J., & Pennebaker, J. W. (in press). Language style matching predicts relationship initiation and stability. Psychological Science.

Joel, S., MacDonald, G., & Plaks, J. E. (2013). Romantic relationships conceptualized as a judgment and decision-making domain. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22, 461-465.

Judge, T. A., Hurst, C., & Simon, L. S. (2009). Does it pay to be smart, attractive, or confident (or all three)? Relationships among general mental ability, physical attractiveness, core self-evaluations, and income. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 742-755.

Kalick, S.M., Zebrowitz, L.A., Langlois, J.H., & Johnson, R.M. (1998). Does human facial attractiveness honestly advertise health? Longitudinal data on an evolutionary question. Psychological Science, 9, 8-13.

LaBrie, J., Cail, J., Hummer, J. F., & Lac, A. (2009). What men want: The role of reflective opposite-sex normative preferences in alcohol use among college women. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 23, 157-162.

Lambert, N., Mulder, S., & Fincham, F. (2014). Thin slices of infidelity: Determining whether observers can pick out cheaters from a video clip interaction and what tips them off. Personal Relationships, 21, 612-619.

Levy, K. N., Blatt, S. J., & Shaver, P. R. (1998). Attachment styles and parental representations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 407-419.

Lieberman, D., Pillsworth, E. G., & Haselton, M. G. (2010). Kin affiliation across the ovulatory cycle: Females avoid fathers when fertile. Psychological Science.

Lydon, J., Menzies-Toman, D.A., Burton, K., & Bell, C. (2008). If-then contingencies and the differential effects of the availability of an attractive alternative on relationship maintenance for men and women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 50-65.

Lykken, D.T. & Tellegen, A. (1993). Is human mating adventitious or the result of lawful choice? A twin study of mate selection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 56-68.

McNulty, S. E., & Swann, W. B., Jr. (1994). Identity negotiation in roommate relationships: The self as architect and consequence of social reality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 1012-1023.

Meston, C.M. & Buss, D.M. (2007). Why humans have sex. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36, 477-507.

Norton, M., Frost, J., & Ariely, D. (2007). Less is more: The lure of ambiguity, or why familiarity breeds contempt. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 97-105.

Pascalis, O., deHaan, M., & Nelson, C. A. (2002). Is face processing species-specific during the first year of life? Science, 296, 1321-1323.

Perilloux, C. & Buss, D. M. (2008). Breaking up romantic relationships: Costs experienced and coping strategies deployed. Evolutionary Psychology, 6, 164-181.

Perilloux, C., Fleischman, D.S. & Buss, D. M. (2008). The daughter-guarding hypothesis: Parental influence on, and emotional reactions to, offspring's mating behavior. Evolutionary Psychology, 6, 217-233.

Pillsworth, E.G., Haselton, M.G., & Buss, D.M. (2004). Ovulatory shifts in female sexual desire. Journal of Sex Research, 41, 55-65.

Place, S. S., Todd, P. M., Penke, L., & Asendorpf, J. B. (2009). The ability to judge the romantic interest of others. Psychological Science, 20, p. 22-26.

Platek, S. M., & Singh, D. (2010). Optimal waist-to-hip ratios in women activate neural reward centers in men. PLoS ONE 5, e9042.

Rhodes, G., Zebrowitz, L. A., Clark, A., Kalick, S. M., Hightower, A., & McKay, R. (2001). Do facial averageness and symmetry signal health? Evolution and Human Behavior, 22, 31-46.

Roisman, G. I., Clausell, E., Holland, A., Fortuna, K., & Elieff, C. (2008). Adult romantic relationships as contexts of human development: A multimethod comparison of same-sex couples with opposite-sex dating, engaged, and married dyads. Developmental Psychology, 44, 91-101.

Rossion, B. (2002). Is sex categorization from faces really parallel to face Recognition? Visual Cognition, 9, 1003-1020.

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