An annotated collection of more than 5000 links to resources and ideas for the teaching of social psychology and related courses organized by topic





Attitudes & Behavior

Attraction & Relationships

Conflict & Peacemaking


Genes, Gender, & Culture

Group Influence





Psychology in the Courtroom

Social Beliefs & Judgments

The Self






























The Self


Activities and Exercises



Multimedia Resources (audio, video)

Topic Resources


Class Assignments

Articles, Books, and Book Chapters

= new link as of February 1, 2024

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Activities and Exercises

Blind to our own biases - activities included


Responding to relative deprivation - The research described here provides a fascinating example of relative deprivation.  The author of this blog entry suggests how you might engage students in its implications and applications.

Religious engagement and the good life - some suggested activities to accompany a Current Directions article

Why hurting others might feel good - Some possible activities around a recent Current Directions article -- here is the Current Directions article.

Adaptation-level phenomenon - Disgraced comedian Louis C. K. provides some examples, and then a possible activity with students is described.

Egocentrism and voting ballot errors - interesting discussion of this topic with some suggestions for classroom use

Boost your happiness

Why do so many mistrust scientific findings? - In many cases because it conflicts with a person's worldview.  This article from David Myers suggests some activities you can conduct with your students around this idea.

"The powers and perils of optimism" - an activity from David Myers regarding a Current Directions article

Self-serving bias - Dana Dunn describes a good activity in this segment on "How I Teach."

"Why grit and self-control matter" - two related activities from Nathan DeWall

The cost of happiness - DeWall and Myers also summarize another recent Current Directions article with some accompanying activities. [added 9/17/15]

Mindfulness meditation can enhance emotional regulation - Still wondering what to do with that bag of raisins lying around?  DeWall and Myers offer a suggested activity.  There has been quite a bit of research recently demonstrating the value of mindfulness on a variety of outcomes.  This activity provides a good way to illustrate it to your students.  This link takes you to an article describing how a sociologist uses mindfulness meditation in his classes.  [added 9/17/15]

Fast thinking feels good - Just off their latest stint in Vegas, here's another activity from DeWall and Myers. [added 9/17/15]

The False Consensus Effect - I have used this simple demo for quite a while now, and it always works quite well. You may have done something similar. I actually do it when I am starting to talk about attitudes, and use it as some review. I tell them I am going to read a list of belief statements, and they should select a number from 1-7 for each one, from strongly disagree to strongly agree. For example, I pick a topic such as professional wrestling, and I give them statements such as "Professional wrestling is a sport," or "Professional wrestling is violent," or "Professional wrestling is amusing." (I also throw in "I wish Stone Cold Steve Austin was my brother.") Most students don't consider pro wrestling amusing, so after I give that statement I tell them to answer the following question with a %. "What % of your classmates gave a 3 or higher to the statement ' professional wrestling is amusing.'" About half give a 1 or 2 and about half give 3 or higher. Then I ask those who gave a 1 or 2 to report what % they thought would say 3 or higher. I do the same for those who gave a 3 or higher. I write their percentages on the board. The results are quite clear: Those who gave a 1 or 2 gave a much lower % than those who gave a 3 or higher to "professional wrestling is amusing." My students see how mundane and common this phenomenon is. You could substitute all kinds of belief statements for the ones I used. In fact, you could run the demo with just one belief statement. Let me know if you have done something similar to this or if you try it with your students. [added 2/19/14]

From Wealth to Well-Being: Spending Money on Others Promotes Happiness - This project won honorable mention for the 2013 Social Psychology Network Action Teaching Award. "This classroom activity offers a vivid and memorable way to demonstrate an important lesson from research on the psychology of happiness: that spending money on others often leads to greater happiness than spending money on oneself. Indeed, even the act of reflecting on a prosocial spending leads to greater happiness than thinking about spending the same amount of money on oneself. To illustrate this finding, the instructor gives students one of two handouts: a blue sheet that asks students to describe the last time they spent approximately $20 on themselves, or a yellow sheet that asks them to describe the last time they spent the same amount on someone else. In both cases, the sheet ends by asking students to rate their current happiness on a 9-point scale. Then, once students have completed the writing assignment and rating, they're asked to crumple the sheet into a ball and throw it at one of three signs in the front of the classroom corresponding to the rating they gave: 1-3 (a relatively low level of happiness), 4-6 (medium happiness), or 7-9 (high happiness). The most common result is that the 7-9 sign draws more yellow balls than blue balls, which sets up a discussion of how helping others can, in turn, help oneself." [added 8/29/13]

Demonstrating self-other (dis)agreement in personality judgments - [added 12/08/12]

The think positive experiment - [added 6/11/12]

Learned helplessness - Watch a video of a nice classroom exercise to illustrate learned helplessness. [3/29/09]

Social identity - paper assignment that could be used as in-class or out-of-class exercise - from Michael Schmitt

Group identity - paper assignment that could be used as in-class activity or discussion starter - from Michael Schmitt

Multimedia Resources (Audio / Video)


"Why do we enjoy playing with fear?" (19:40) - It's a fine balance between arousal and control. Lots of people like to ride rollercoasters. It seems scary and exciting, but ultimately the riders know they are safe, so in control. I always told my students that if you put a sign at the entrance to a rollercoaster that said, "1 out of every 100 riders will die on this ride today," you wouldn't get many takers. A podcast from the British Psychological Society Research Briefs.

"Why nobody feels rich: The psychology of inequality" (33:00) - A podcast from NPR's Hidden Brain

Cognitive Dissonance (1:00:42) - a podcast from Opinion Science with transcript included

“How inequality affects the way we think, live, and die” (32:29) - a podcast from NPR’s Hidden Brain

The Self: Interview with John Cacioppo on loneliness - (2:56) [added 3/24/09]


Cognitive dissonance (5:44) - a review of the concept

Cognitive dissonance (2:27) - and how we can deal with it -- from an episode of Friends

"How everyday interactions shape your future" (16:35) - A TED Talk from social psychologist Mesmin Destin

"How to change your behavior for the better" (15:14) - A good TED Talk from Dan Ariely

The Power of Us - Jay Van Bavel and his colleague, Dominic Packer, have written a new book, The Power of Us. They have created some interesting videos that illustrate some of the points in the book. Thanks for sharing these.

The joy of being wrong (3:28) - a nice video on the value of intellectual humility

An interview with Walter Mischel (1:06:58)

Self-disparagement, confirmation bias, ... (3:17) - amusing Saturday Night Live clip that illustrates multiple concepts

Self-knowledge (45:13) - At the 2015 APS Convention, Timothy Wilson gives a talk entitled, "Strangers to ourselves: The limits, sources, advantages, and disadvantages of self-knowledge."

"The paradox of choice" (19:33) - Barry Schwartz gives a TED Talk  -- has choice made us freer or more paralyzed?  I applaud his choice of outfit.

Dishonesty (34:34) - Excellent video on the topic from Dan Ariely

Walter Mischel discusses the marshmallow test - (5:38) on The Colbert Report.  Worth watching. [added 9/24/15]

"One of the greatest contributing factors to happiness" - (7:14) [added 2/19/14]

Happiness resources - Videos and other resources [added 12/07/12]

The marshmallow study revisited - (3:45) an interesting variation on the famous study of self-control with kids [added 12/07/12]

Interviews of Ed Diener - First interview - (14:43) Second interview - (11:53) Michael Frisch interviews Ed Diener on happiness research. [added 11/29/11]

How perception of time affects our work, health, and well-being - (10:09) an interesting animated video from Phil Zimbardo [added 10/3/10]

Dealing with time - (6:31) an interesting, brief historical look at the ways we look at and think about time, narrated by Bob Levine [added 10/3/10]

The riddle of happiness - (20:06) a good TED talk from Daniel Kahneman [added 10/3/10]

Can money buy happiness? - (4:05) depends on what you spend it on according to Thomas Gilovich
[added 10/3/10]

Impulse control of sextuplets - (2:35) a video showing a test of delay of gratification among a famous set of sextuplets [added 12/12/07]

Dan Gilbert lecture - (20:00) Interesting 20-minute talk on the impact bias, "the tendency to overestimate the hedonic impact of future events." We're not very good at predicting what will make us happy. But I think you will enjoy this video. Hey, I wonder if we are better at predicting what will make other people happy? [added 7/19/07]

"The Happiness Formula" - A BBC program has an extensive accompanying website with lots of video and other good resources on happiness. Even take a happiness test. [added 7/6/06]


Class Assignments


Putting positive psychology into action - a service learning project [added 8/1/10]

Paper Assignments

Self-portraits - students create self-portraits in picture as well as essay form applying concepts of self and social belief; then they compose portraits of classmates based upon their pictures



Cognitive dissonance - Here is a good description of the cognitive dissonance experienced by the followers of the QAnon conspiracy now that Trump lost the election.  And if you are wondering where those QAnon subscribers are going to go now, click here!

Adaptation-level phenomenon - Social psychologist Keith Payne shares an example from his childhood.

Moral licensing - Here is an example from one of my students: “A classmate of mine said that she did 2 extra credit assignments over the weekend to turn in on Monday. She said it was a lot of work and it made her feel really ahead in class. She then exhibited moral licensing when she explained that because she did those extra assignments, she was going to skip class on Wednesday and asked me if I would provide the notes. I thought this was pretty funny.”

Cognitive dissonance - How does it feel to find out that one of your favorite celebrities is a sexual assaulter/harasser?

Cognitive dissonance - How do White nationalists respond when DNA testing reveals they are not all white, and how do their group members respond?

Reducing cognitive dissonance - "In just one day, Fox News offered 15 different excuses for Trump's disgusting treatment of women."

Upward comparison - Amid the other interesting tidbits in this Talk Psych blog entry from Myers and DeWall is mention of a study in which the researchers analyzed over 30 billion friendships on Facebook (largest data set ever?) and found that in seeking new friends we tend to "friend up." [added 9/17/15]

Cognitive dissonance - The meat paradox: How do we reconcile caring for animals while eating them? [added 9/17/15]

Perception of Control

Impulse control of sextuplets - a video showing a test of delay of gratification among a famous set of sextuplets [added 12/12/07]

A couple of other former chapter thoughts: I was reading an article on Mary Decker in the Tribune on Sunday and noticed the "control" issue surfacing throughout. Mary was training for the Olympics and she and her husband were deciding whether or not to have a child. Their decision ended up being yes. Because of race schedules they had only one month in which conception could take place and she could still have time to deliver, recover, and begin training again. She and her husband flew to Hawaii and in fact she became pregnant during that time. The point of the story in the planning and in her comments about being pregnant was control. She had decided when to get pregnant and she did (lucky Mary). Many others who plan something like this to coincide with work and school schedules are not as successful and the disappointment related to that has to do with control. The feeling is We're doing all the things we're supposed to do, now why aren't "we" pregnant. It's funny the number of conversations like this I've had with women whose biological clock is ticking away. Another interesting comment Mary made in the article was that when she was pregnant all of a sudden there was this person inside her controlling her body. She couldn't do the same things, this person demanded more of her (nutrition, sleep, etc.) and her body grew in a way that was for the most part, out of her control. I found it very interesting to read this story because it pointed out to me some psychological concepts I had never associated with pregnancy. Also, as my biological clock ticks away and results at this point are none, it make me understand some of the reasons underlying the frustrations people (we) feel when things don't go exactly as we like to plan them.

While sitting at home today waiting for delivery men, I had much time to be thinking of journal examples. One thing I thought about was the uneasy feeling I had all morning. I realized that the uneasiness was due to the uncertainty as to when my furniture would come. I had no control over the situation. My lack of control was increased because our phone does not get connected until Wednesday and so I could not call them and they could not call me. Not until I had gone downstairs and used the phone in the rental office to find out what time my delivery would come did I feel that I had some control and thus felt more relaxed.

I have established a bedtime routine which we follow every night: bath, juice, books, kiss Daddy, look out window, hug bunny, lie down in crib. He knows the pattern by now and doesn't get upset when I put him in bed. There is a predictability in our actions, and I assume that gives him a feeling of control. I think it's important, though, that he is able to handle some variety so that if something occurs which is out of the ordinary or contrary to our/his routine, he won't fall apart completely.

Illusion of control - That button doesn’t actually work!  Interesting article about how many of the buttons around us (e.g., walk buttons at intersections, close-the-door buttons on elevators) aren’t actually functional.  But we push them anyway!

Illusion of Control - I know that flying is safer statistically than riding in a car. Nor am I afraid to fly. Yet I am reminded that no matter how much I think I believe it, I really don't. For example, I drive my car to work everyday and never once consider that I will not make it home. Yet on Friday, my husband and I had our will updated because we are flying out of town without our children. I know I never get on a plane without a feeling of apprehension and never land without a feeling of relief. From my studies I can attribute my feelings to two possible factors: 1) When I drive a car, I am in control. I drive defensively and alertly. When I get on a plane, I have absolutely no control. The pilot is in charge. He may have had a fight with his spouse and his head is in the clouds. (Pardon the pun.) He may have a terrific hangover from the night before. The loss of control has a terrific influence on my feelings. 2) The vividness effect is also dominant. When an airline crashes, it makes the front page. We see horrendous scenes of the accident sight on the 10:00 news. We see interviews of victims' sobbing relatives. All the people on board the aircraft are dead and never had a chance to survive. This image always comes to mind when I fly. The vividness of this scenario is hard to wipe from my mind.

Reactance - One night not too long ago, my friends and I were browsing the shelves of Blockbuster searching for a movie we could all agree on, a feat that usually takes close to an hour. Along the way we offered many suggestions, the most prominent being "The Lives of Others." We continued to look though, because that's just what we do. After another 10-15 minutes of searching, we decided that movie would be fine. But when we went back to take it, it was gone. We were so upset, claiming we really wanted to watch it, and it was the perfect movie for that night. Now knowing better, I can attribute our reactions to reactance: we liked "The Lives of Others" better when the choice was taken away. [added 4/16/08]

Reactance - Today while I was on the phone, I was told about a classic case of reactance. This is something that my brother suffers from often, just like he was a little kid (but he's 18). On Tuesday, my brother had to go to some place in Hillcrest to sign up for his classes. He's going to attend S.I.U., however, there was this place up here for the northern students to sign up at so they wouldn't have to drive to Carbondale. Now I know my brother pretty well. He loves tennis. He hates bowling. Just like us, they have to take a P.E. class, so he decided that he wanted bowling. This was before he found out that tennis was available. Then he finds out he can take tennis, but bowling is filled. He had a spaz. He now wanted bowling more than he wanted tennis. When I asked him why, he said it was because he couldn't get into bowling. Oh well, that's my brother.

Reactance - I discovered an example of the reactance theory in my own life this past summer. My family wants a dog for a pet. I haven't been too thrilled by the idea all along. I finally agreed, only if it was a Pembrooke Welsh Corgi. Corgis are a rather uncommon breed and I figured we probably wouldn't find one at any of the shelters. At the first shelter we went to, the employees had never heard of the breed. Much to my delight and the rest of the family's dismay, they doubted if they would ever receive a dog like that into the shelter system for disposal. At the second shelter, though, the receptionist knew exactly what we were talking about. She rechecked her records and informed us that we missed getting a Corgi by a few days. They had just had one in their possession the previous week. I remember thinking, "Oh, no! We were so close." Now I really wanted the dog badly. We spent the rest of the day checking at other shelters but to no avail. It's been 3 months and still no more Corgi. I've spent considerable time checking with breeders and shelters. My husband keeps wondering out loud why if I don't want a dog, am I going through all this work. I think this whole situation also has something to do with relative deprivation. I've gotten numerous books from the library about Corgis. Seeing them with their owners makes me feel deprived. If they can have a dog, why can't I? I'd be just as good an owner. (Gosh, we've already even built the dog house!) Although some owners of Corgis wouldn't necessarily be in our reference group -- for example, Queen Elizabeth owns 3 Corgis, -- many of the owners look like "regular folks." These are people that could definitely fit in our reference group for comparison. I guess I'll continue to feel "deprived" until we get one.

Self-handicapping - Every once in a while me and my friends get together to play a big game of Halo 3. Since our "skill" level varies widely among us we have to divide the teams up as fairly as we can. One day, we had an odd number of players that showed up and the first idea that came to all of our heads was that one of us was going to sit out. Instead, however, my friend volunteered to be the team with fewer players. We all knew he did this because when he lost he could claim it was because his team was outnumbered. It was his own strategy to self-handicap in order to shrug off the loss. [added 4/16/08]

Self-handicapping - My mom started this new diet. Since she usually fails, she overworks herself when she exercises the first couple times. From that, she is too sore to continue exercising and so she stops completely. Instead of doing a little bit every day, she knows she's going to fail. She purposely overworks herself so that she is not responsible for her failure.
[added 4/16/08]

Self-serving bias - David Myers shares some more examples of the ever-present bias. 

Self-serving bias - Once again, a survey finds that the American public does not have a very high opinion of how Congress is handling its job, a 61% disapproval rate, but only 29% disapprove of "the way their own representative is handling his or her own job." Here is the actual survey. [added 12/27/06]

Better-than-average effect - "Students view the same behaviors they've engaged in as racist when someone else does them."

Exaggerated perception of self - “About 90% of the participants told researchers they believed they were above average in their ability to sniff out fake stories.”

Exaggerated perception of self - “Most professors think they’re above-average teachers.”

Exaggerated perception of self - This blog entry includes some interesting survey research indicating that recent college graduates believe they are much better prepared than employers do.  Here is a link to the graph itself.

Exaggerated perception of self - We're all better drivers than that other guy. [added 9/24/15]

Exaggerated perception of self - I heard a commercial on the radio the other day for a contest at, which is a site that promotes fantasy sports. The commercial began, "Are you an above average fantasy football player?" The ad went on to promote its 50/50 game in which the top half of players in a division would win money each week. How could such a game make any money for Fanduel? We are all above average, aren't we? That opening question and the premise that the top half of participants will earn cash is a great way to play on our exaggerated perceptions of ourselves. [added 2/19/14]

Exaggerated perception of self - "90% of corporations think that their executives deserve above-median pay." Remember the study that found that 94% of faculty at one school rated themselves above average among the faculty at that school? [added 1/15/12]

The group-serving bias - Despite overwhelming dislike of politicians in Washington, there has always been a group-serving bias such that MY representative/senator is okay, but the rest of those bums are terrible. Now, the majority of Americans don't even like their own incumbent. [added 12/5/10]

Topic Resources

Coping with uncertainty

Do trigger warnings help, hurt, or...

"How media, politics, and identity drive our appetite for misinformation" - an interview with Danna Young, author of the book with the above title

"Expect better and you shall perceive it"

Interview with Brian Lowery - Jay Van Bavel and Dominic Packer interview "a social psychologist and Stanford professor whose new book, Selfless: The Social Creation of You presents a provocative, powerful theory of identity, arguing that there is no essential 'self,' our selves are social creations of those with whom we interact, exploring what that means for who we can be and who we allow others to be."

Work and identity - How much was, is, or will be your work an important part of your identity? Or, is it just a job? A good essay on the topic

If I see you commit one immoral act, do I think you are doomed? - "Past work has already found (fairly unsurprisingly) that we have a negative opinion of people's overall character after we witness them commit an immoral act. But the new study looked at how we believe people will change over time after committing such acts."

We're very fond of ourselves, but do others like us? - More than we think, as David Myers reports in this brief review of some research.

"Lies are more common on laptops than on phones" - Which device are you using right now?

"Identifying with a group may boost individuals' sense of control"

When uncertainty can be motivating

Let's be goodish! - A social psychologist argues that it is impossible for us to be perfect, so we should just strive to be goodish. I like it, but for me the emphasis is on the "ish" part.

“Who ‘spills their guts’ online?” - according to this research, those who are more private off-line

After Googling information we become smarter! - Interesting series of studies that find that those who were allowed to Google for the answers to questions compared to those who weren’t reported that they were smarter and had better memories.

The end of history illusion - Fascinating research on how we tend to believe that we changed more in the past than we will in the future, with an interesting look at cross-cultural differences

"Our worldview predicts our politics and behavior"

Personal and group identity and one's response to the pandemic - a good discussion of how our norms and beliefs shape our response to the pandemic PANDEMIC

Cheating and the hindsight bias - "Unsurprisingly, those in the cheating condition answered more of the difficult questions than those in the control condition — and were more likely to later report that they knew the answers all along too."

Moral myopia? - David Myers wrote an excellent blog essay about how our exaggerated perception of self may hinder our ability to judge our own right and wrong actions.

Another update on the marshmallow test - Children will be more likely to delay gratification if they know their teacher will find out.

Detailed lectures- John Kihlstrom shared his lecture notes for the self and other social topics.

The self-fulfilling prophecy - a good blog entry on the phenomenon, from a sociological perspective

Seek success or avoid failure? - With our attention to upward comparison and the adaptation-level phenomenon it is not surprising that we are often more concerned with avoiding failure than seeking success.  Here is some more research consistent with this premise – “the dissatisfaction of being sexually rejected by a partner lasts longer than the pleasure of having an advance accepted.”

Complete this statement 20 times: “I am _____ - When teenagers were asked to complete this task they mostly chose traits to describe themselves, and most of those traits were positive.  However, when young adults (18-30) were given the same task they tended to define themselves in terms of their social roles.

Talk to yourself about yourself in the third person - After reading this research, Jon has learned that it is more likely to improve your self-knowledge and emotional regulation than simply ruminating about things.  Ohh, now Jon gets it.

Does gratitude reduce dishonest behavior? - As this research suggests, activating, consciously or unconsciously, someone’s feelings of gratitude can increase their resistance to temptation.

“Why do people stay when a hurricane comes?” - “We found that outside observers — and even the relief workers providing aid — viewed those who evacuated as ‘self-reliant’ and ‘hard-working,’ while they denigrated those who stayed behind, calling them ‘lazy,’ ‘negligent’ and ‘stubborn.’”

“The ‘real you’ is a myth” - “We constantly create false memories to achieve the identity we want.”

Re-replication of the facial feedback phenomenon - This story provides a great example of how science is tentative and how our understanding of the world is always evolving.

“When bragging on social media can be a good thing” - It may not help your social standing, but it can make you feel better.

People want to be compared with self, not others, in performance reviews

"Strongest evidence yet" for ego depletion - Here is some more research that suggests that it does, and that tries to address problems with earlier research. 

“What is the secret to being more assertive?” - Having self-respect – interesting research that distinguishes between feeling good about yourself and self-respect.

How much bragging should you do on your resume? - Of course I already knew this, but the research suggests a moderate amount is best.

Belief in our moral superiority is our most self-enhancing bias of all - “’Virtually all individuals irrationally inflated their moral qualities, and the absolute and relative magnitude of this irrationality was greater than that in the other domains of positive self-evaluation,’ the researchers noted.”

"African farmers' kids conquer the marshmallow test" - Apparently they are the first group of non-Western kids assessed on this delay of gratification test, and the first of any group to have a majority wait for the second treat

"For conspiracy theorists, the more obscure a theory... - the more appealing it becomes, satisfying their 'need for uniqueness.'"

Markers of our identity - What does your car say about you?  What does not having a car or even a driver's license say about you?

"We have an unfortunate tendency to assume we're morally superior" - Morally superior?  You people are stupid!

"Can signatures decrease cheating?" - This series of studies found that having someone sign his/her name BEFORE completing a task reduced cheating more so than if the person signed afterwards or not at all

Perceived increase in incivility just more self-serving bias? - This study provides a very clear example of the self-serving bias to use in class.

"Practising self-control with a squeezy handgrip boosted these students' grades" - This is an interesting and useful study, but I primarily included it because I like the phrase "squeezy handgrip."  It's just fun to say!  I know, I need better self-control.

The unconscious voice of creativity - An interesting little rumination on where our ideas come from from David Myers.  But I really just included this link because I love the photo included.  It looks as if David is annoyed at us for intruding on his private writing time.  And, yet, he is the one who included the photo!  Aha, it was it his unconscious mind that did it!

"Distinctiveness defines identity" - David Myer explains why Scots identify themselves as Scottish more than English.  We define ourselves in terms of how we are different.  Which is usually awesome, of course.

"Googling stuff can cause us to overestimate our own knowledge" - Looking something up can create the "illusion of knowledge."  We've tried to tell our students that, haven't we?

The development of self-control - This article reviews some research presented at the APS convention.

"Self-proclaimed experts more vulnerable to the illusion of knowledge" - Like I'm telling you something you didn't already know.  "New research reveals that the more people think they know about a topic in general, the more likely they are to allege knowledge of completely made-up information and false facts, a phenomenon known as 'overclaiming.'"

Bragging often backfires - Of course I knew that.

Self-justification for lying/cheating - Here is a brief summary of the research described in one of the above Current Directions articles.

"Most good people have the same basic life story"

Solomon's paradox - Research finds that we are better at making wise decisions about other people's lives than about our own.  You should fix that.

The "front stage" self and the "back stage" self - At the Oscars!


Income inequality promotes status seeking - Although this remarkable finding is coming from respected columnist Wray Herbert, I still want to see the research article before I can believe it.  Researchers tested the hypothesis that greater income inequality leads to more status seeking which leads to more desiring/purchasing of high status goods.  They found that Google searches in states in the U.S. with greater income inequality targeted luxury and high-status goods 70% of the time.  What % of searches for such high-status goods were conducted in more income equal states?  ZERO PERCENT!  WHAT?!? I know, it seems impossible for it to be ZERO.  I look forward to the article in an upcoming issue of Psychological Science.  I couldn't find a draft of the article online anywhere yet. If you find one please send me the link.  ZERO??

When to use an intention implementation plan - "The results were pretty clear. Creating an implementation intention for a single goal was beneficial, but for multiple goals disastrous. It seems that implementable planning for multiple objectives increases the salience of two things: the difficulty of juggling numerous goals compared to a single one, and the potential conflicts and constraints that exist between multiple goals." [added 9/24/15]

Relative superiority - I just coined a new term!  (Okay, probably not, but give me my 15 minutes, okay?  Thanks.)  You know about relative deprivation, when someone feels at a disadvantage compared to someone in a similar situation, such as a car-less college student comparing herself to college students with cars.  That often leads to feelings of frustration and disappointment.  But what if one perceives himself in an advantageous position relative to similar others?  He experiences relative superiority.  And what does that lead to?  Voting Republican!  And supporting government policies that restrict welfare programs even if one is poor.  Read on....  [added 9/24/15]

Dogs like control too! - [added 9/24/15]

Inmates also exhibit better-than-average effect - And not just compared to other inmates.  They believe they are more self-controlled, more compassionate, more generous, more dependable, more trustworthy, and more honest than non-inmates as well.  However, the inmates only thought they were equally law-abiding compared to non-inmates. [added 9/17/15]

When outcomes are more unclear we are more fatalistic - If I can't do anything about it or figure out how it will come out, I will leave it to the mysterious hand of fate. [added 2/19/14]

Roy Baumeister on willpower - a brief Q&A in Time magazine [added 8/29/13]

"Illusion of control: Are there benefits to being self-deluded?" - Duh. Social psychology: The study of the obvious...for those of us who aren't deluded. [added 8/29/13]

Prefer mimics who use same body part as us - [added 1/13/13]

The name uniqueness effect - That is, "you think your first name is rarer than other people do." [added 1/13/13]

"Just how independent are independent voters?" - Sam Sommers reviews research finding that independents are like the rest of us -- they are influenced by prior attitudes (party affiliations). I know, social psychology is the study of the obvious. [added 1/13/13]

Why you keep playing the lottery - Yes, you. [added 1/13/13]

Which side of your face do you prefer to show in pictures? - "A team of scientists say that it reflects how much you see yourself as emotional and arty or rational and scientific. Owen Churches and his colleagues analysed the personal webpages belonging to 5,829 English-language university academics around the world. They found that engineers, mathematicians and chemists more often posed with their right cheek; English lit. dons and psychologists with their left. '... [M]ost academic psychologists, who may have entered the profession during its arts oriented past, perceive themselves as being more akin to arts academics than scientists,' said Churches and co." [added 1/13/13]

The worse-than-average effect - You can't all be me (average, that is). But even I think I am worse at some things than I actually am. [added 7/7/12]

Revising your story - "University of Virginia psychologist Timothy D. Wilson, PhD, is fascinated by the stories people tell themselves to make sense of the world. Those personal narratives, he says, can make the difference between living a healthy, productive life—or not. But the question is: How can we alter those narratives to enact positive, lasting change?" [added 7/7/12]

Even introspection is context-dependent? - Sam Sommers looks at how efforts of self-improvement are shaped by the situations we are in. Coincidentally, Sam has a new book out entitled Situations Matter. [added 7/7/12]

Speaking in a deep voice makes you feel more powerful - [added 7/7/12]

"Symbolic interactionism on the road" - Good blog entry discussing symbolic interactionism and self-concept as it relates to the act of driving [added 1/29/12]

The mystery of mirrors - Not really social psych, but mirrors are fascinating. People are poor at judging what they would see in a mirror when looking at it from an angle. [added 1/29/12]

The Penn State saga - In this blog entry, Sam Sommers connects the sordid issues of Joe Paterno and Penn State to a number of social psych phenomena. [added 1/29/12]

End-of-the-world forecaster has revised the date - If you are reading this, the world has not ended -- yet. According to Harold Camping, it was supposed to end on May 21. He meant to say October 21. [added 8/21/11]

"Monkeys doubt themselves just like humans" - Although, researchers aren't sure. Interesting way of testing for this. [added 6/12/11]

"The benefits of thinking about our ancestors" - "An initial study involved 80 undergrads spending five minutes thinking about either their fifteenth century ancestors, their great-grandparents or a recent shopping trip. Afterwards, those students in the two ancestor conditions were more confident about their likely performance in future exams, an effect that seemed to be mediated by their feeling more in control of their lives. Three further studies showed that thinking or writing about their recent or distant ancestors led students to actually perform better on a range of intelligence tests, including verbal and spatial tasks (in one test, students who thought about their distant ancestors scored an average of 14 out of 16, compared with an average of 10 out of 16 among controls). The ancestor benefit was mediated partly by students attempting more answers - what the researchers called having a 'promotion orientation.'" [added 6/12/11]

Your friends and family see you differently (on some things) - Interesting study finds that we often perceive ourselves differently than others see us on certain traits (e.g., others see us as less neurotic than we see ourselves). Most interestingly, these same discrepancies appeared across cultures. [added 12/24/10]

Engaging in impression management actually changes your perception of others [added 12/24/10]

Social comparison bias - This blog entry describes research finding that we tend to prefer to associate with those whose strengths don't compete with ours. [added 12/23/10]

Cross-cultural differences in the mirror test - "The performance of young children on the 'mirror self-recognition test' varies hugely across cultures, a new study has shown."
[added 12/23/10]

Suppressing thoughts of smoking leads to more smoking - [added 10/30/10]

Social influence on the illusion of control - "The illusion of control is the tendency to believe that we have influence over uncontrollable events. It has been well demonstrated in gamblers who may often put down wins and losses to their skills and abilities, even on games like roulette where the outcomes are entirely random. This new study found that roulette players who learnt that someone else had recently 'won big' had an increased illusion of control, expected to win more and made more risky gambles while playing. However, this effect virtually disappeared simply by adding that the 'big winner' had put down his bonanza to sheer luck." [added 7/20/10]

Self-delusion and lying - Read another interesting blog entry from Sam Sommers concerning examples in the news of forged transcripts and inflated resumes. [added 7/20/10]

Indirect bragging can be harmful - You may be better off saying "I could be the next prime minister" than saying "My son could be the next prime minister." [added 7/20/10]

Willfulness vs. willingness - Blog entry describes interesting research which asks if it is better to tell ourselves "I will do this" or to ask ourselves "Will I do this?" before starting a task. Studies find that the less goal-directed wondering was more successful, and actually led to more goal-directed intentions. [added 7/20/10]

"Census figures challenge views of race and ethnicity" - [added 2/13/10]

Evaluating your own competence is hard - very interesting article reviewing research about the difficult of judging one's own competence [added 1/19/10]

"Thinking that you're blushing makes you blush even more" - a number of interesting findings in this study [added 7/16/09]

Loss aversion and dieting - Interesting story of a new Web site that requires you to pledge some money connected to certain weight loss goals. If you don't meet them, the money is donated to a charity or a person you designate. Connected to loss aversion. And what if the wife's (or husband's) demerits cost her money? (See above.)
[added 7/16/09]

The illusion of control by proxy - Summary of an interesting study which finds "we are prepared to hand over control to others if we believe they are likely to be luckier than we are. Wohl and Enzle call this 'illusion of control by proxy.'" [added 5/2/09]

Stick to your resolutions/goals? - Interesting new website Michael Britt passed along in which you select a goal, set a deadline, and identify a punishment if you don't make it. Can you feel public embarrassment online?
[added 5/2/09]

Self-handicapping - New York Times article on some research - [added 5/2/09]

"Individual differences in susceptibility to mindlessness" - If someone tried to jump in line at the copier within an inane excuse would you still give in? What if you were high in need for cognition? High in self-monitoring? [added 5/2/09]

Name-dropping ... maybe not such a good idea - "Indeed, according to Carmen Lebherz and colleagues, name-dropping will probably make you appear less likeable and less competent - unless, that is, you make your association with the famous name sound suitably distant and casual. Even then, it's only likely to do you any good as a kind of sympathy vote, after your audience have witnessed you fail." [added 5/2/09]

How mirrors affect self-perception - Interesting article from the New York Times -- did you know the image of your face in the mirror is exactly half the size of your real face, no matter how far you are away from the mirror? [added 12/21/08]

"How do you make a reputation for yourself?" - a good blog entry reviewing some research on the topic [added 8/09/08]

The imposter phenomenon - Is expressing self-doubt a personality trait or self-presentation? [added 5/24/08]

Culture influences perspective - "Once again, we see the same pattern: in social situations, Asian Americans are more likely than Euro-Americans to take the perspective of a friend (by using "come" instead of "go" when someone is approaching them), while in non-social situations the pattern is almost reversed." [added 4/27/08]

"Personality plagiarism rife on internet dating sites" - interesting discussion of how people are "constructing the self" on the internet by stealing attractive or creative profiles [added 4/14/08]

In denial - New York Times article reviewing some interesting research on what motivates denial, how it is viewed by others (sometimes more favorably than being honest), and what forms it takes [added 12/21/07]

How are optimists, pessimists, and realists perceived? - a story about some research -- optimists and realists more favorably perceived than pessimists, but people will still stop and help pessimists [added 11/21/07]

"Conversational partners coordinate eye movements" - interesting study looking at how even separated conversants coordinate eye gaze [added 10/25/07]

"I'll agree to do the right week" - "When making decisions a person often thinks that she should make certain choices (e.g., increasing savings, reduce gas consumption) but does not want to make them. This intrasubjective tension between 'multiple selves' has been referred to as a 'want/should' conflict. In four experiments we show that people are more likely to choose what they believe they should choose when the choice will be implemented in the future rather than implemented immediately, a tendency we refer to as 'future lock-in.'" [added 7/06/07]

The forgotten origins of the self-serving bias - Probably like most of you, I assumed that the self-serving bias had been part of human nature for as long as, well, we've been humans. But, with a little digging, I discovered it's a relatively new phenomenon! [added 12/1/04]

"Tutorials" on several topics - David Kenny provides some clearly written explanations of a variety of methodological and interpersonal perception topics. [added 7/16/03]

Self-determination theory - a site from Edward Deci et al. on their motivational theory -- it includes an overview, bibliography, discussion of the reward controversy (overjustification effect), related scales that can be downloaded and more [added 6/6/02]

"The Self in Scientific Psychology" - classic article from Mary Whiton Calkins (1915)

"The Social Self" - classic article by George Herbert Mead (1913)


“Where does the imposter feelings come from?” - “More than 40 years ago, two psychologists coined the term impostor phenomenon. They used the term to describe the many bright, highly accomplished women they had encountered in their clinical practice, who, surprisingly, had trouble believing that they had really earned their success. These women regarded their academic or professional success as unearned and doubted their abilities; they thought they had gotten to where they were by some fluke or stroke of good luck; and they worried that others would discover their supposed incompetence.”

Interventions boost self-esteem, reduce stereotype threat - a good, brief article describing some of the research

Self-esteem and Facebook use - How do high and low self-esteem individuals use Facebook differently? Interesting series of studies. [added 7/7/12]

Sweets, sex, or self-esteem boost -- which would you like more? - College students chose the self-esteem boost. [added 6/12/11]

"Admiring celebrities can help improve self-esteem" - What? Yes, this study found that engaging in these "fake" relationships with celebrities (called parasocial relationships) can benefit those with low self-esteem. [added 8/09/08]

"Exploding the self-esteem myth" - a featured article in the January 2005 issue of Scientific American by Roy Baumeister et al. [added 3/20/05]

Report on self-esteem - A report published in Psychological Science in the Public Interest from APS challenges certain supposed benefits of high self-esteem. [added 7/21/03]

Race and self-esteem - article (2000) in Salon magazine


"What's more important, your family's happiness or your own?" - a good blog post from Larry White

"What's the difference between meaning and happiness?" - I thought I would give you an easy question to mull over. "A new study asks people what makes them happy and what gives life meaning and finds that benefitting others can do both."

Smiling can make you happier - Remember years ago when research found that holding a pen in your mouth which forced a "smile" made you feel happier than holding that pen in your mouth in a non-smile manner? Remember, years later, when replication of this effect failed? Remember, just now, when a new large study found that if you imitate the smile of someone else you then feel happier, but not if you hold a pen in your mouth? Yeah, me, too. Interesting stuff. Another good example for your students of how research works and evolves.

"Do Olympic-level achievements make people happy?"

The World Happiness Report 2021 - "The World Happiness Report 2021 focuses on the effects of COVID-19 and how people all over the world have fared. Our aim was two-fold, first to focus on the effects of COVID-19 on the structure and quality of people’s lives, and second to describe and evaluate how governments all over the world have dealt with the pandemic. In particular, we try to explain why some countries have done so much better than others."

The World Happiness Report finds... - despite the pandemic, self-reported life satisfaction across 95 countries is about the same as the previous year.  That makes me happy!  Oops, the average just went up. PANDEMIC

Are bronze medalists happier than silver medalists?

Schadenfreude: Enjoying others’ suffering - This research examines when we are most likely to do so.

Inequality and happiness - David Myers lays out some interesting data linking economic inequality with other measures of well-being.

Happiness - Several articles on the subject from APS

“Why Denmark dominates the World Happiness Report rankings year after year”

"Happiness doesn't affect health?" - David Myers, in his inimitable way, nicely skewers this misleading story in the popular press.   "Ditto, one can eliminate the seeming effect of a hurricane by 'controlling for' the confounding effect of the wind, rain, and storm surge.  A hurricane 'by itself,' after eliminating such mediating factors has little or no 'direct effect.'"  Have your students play "that game" with all kinds of other effects!  One can eliminate the effect of what Donald Trump says on his poll numbers once you control for....

"Mathematical equation to predict happiness" - Finally.  That makes me happy.  "The happiness of over 18,000 people worldwide has been predicted by a mathematical equation, with results showing that moment-to-moment happiness reflects not just how well things are going, but whether things are going better than expected." [added 9/24/15]


"The United Nation's '2013 World Happiness Report'" - [added 2/19/14]

"What a silver medal teaches us about regret" - good blog entry looking at research on silver medalists [added 1/13/13]

"Pessimism -- it could save your mind" - "The researchers set out to examine the best method to dealing with life stressors and determine if positive outlook resulted in improved mental health. Studies thus far have yielded mixed results on this issue. While some say positive appraisals of stressful events can benefit mental health in the long run, others caution against not gauging threatening events accurately. The researchers decided to study the experiences of recently married couples over a sustained period of time. To do this, the researchers measured the severity of controllable, negative situations (based on observer ratings), perceived marital satisfaction (based on the subjects’ own ratings), and depressive symptoms — each assessed at particular set points. Through two carefully controlled studies, they were able to reconcile the disparate conclusions of past research. The factor that appears to be responsible for this difference appears to be the severity of stress faced by the subject." [added 1/29/12]

LiveHappy -- an iPhone app to increase happiness - This application won honorable mention for the Social Psychology Network Action Teaching Award. [added 6/12/11]

Does fun fly when you're having time? - Okay, that doesn't make sense. But this set of studies wondered if the saying "time flies when you're having fun" could be turned on its head. If you perceive time is flying does that positively affect your judgment of something? [added 1/19/10]

Happy? Depends on your state - Your U.S. state that is -- "People really are happier in those US states identified as having better 'quality of life.'" [added 1/19/10]

Day Reconstruction Method example (Are you enjoying yourself? How do we know?) - One method of measuring your level of happiness or enjoyment is through Kahneman's Day Reconstruction Method in which participants "divide the last day up into discrete episodes and rate their feelings during each one." However, as this blog entry describes, that method led to some "bizarre" results such as "people seem to spend an inordinate amount of time doing things they claim not to enjoy, like spending time with their children, and commuting." (I just realized, I've been commuting to work with my children the last couple years. Yikes!) A new approach suggests asking people not only how they feel during these activities but also how worthwhile or meaningful (i.e., rewarding) they are. Adding such questions to the method changes what people report as enjoyable. Spending time with children is still a common activity, but now it is described as more pleasurable. Commuting .... not so much. [added 1/19/10]

"Can anything in life ever surpass winning 14 gold medals?" - interesting blog on Michael Phelps "peak experience" and whether everything after will be less satisfying [added 12/21/08]

How to be happy - This blog entry visits research supporting three strategies for increasing one's happiness. [added 3/23/08]

Short-term vs. long-term happiness - interesting blog entry describing research that examines the sources of our happiness [added 12/21/07]

Dan Gilbert's work - A good report from the 2007 APS convention on how poor we are at forecasting our happiness [added 10/25/07]

"The Happiness Formula" - A BBC program has an extensive accompanying website with lots of video and other good resources on happiness. Even take a happiness test. [added 7/6/06]

Can money buy happiness?

Can money buy happiness? - An excellent essay on the topic -- if I had a nickel for every time someone asked that question, I might be happy! Although, my bank doesn't accept coins anymore. If I had a bitcoin ...

Can money buy happiness? - Some new research puts a new spin on the question: “We draw on prior research that distinguishes between the frequency and intensity of happiness to suggest that higher income is more consistently linked to how frequently individuals experience happiness than how intensely happy each episode is,” state the researchers. “Notably, we demonstrate that only happiness frequency underlies the relationship between income and life satisfaction.”

Are you happier spending money on things or experiences? - Previous research suggested that spending money on experiences produced more happiness than spending money on material objects.  However, this recent study found that it depends on one’s social class.

When is the “experiential advantage” not? - According to this new research, those who are not well off find spending money on objects at least as desirable as spending it on experiences.  Prior research had found that we find spending on experiences more pleasurable than spending on things.  However, most of that research was conducted on a rather affluent group – college students.  This is a good example to share with your students about the limits of generalizability.

The endowment effect - Why we overvalue stuff we own/buy [added 8/29/13]

"8 ways that money can buy happiness" - from Dan Gilbert [added 7/7/12]

Material possessions and happiness - interesting article looking at how strongly the possession of material things is actually related to happiness [added 6/12/11]

Happiness = $60,000/yr - that's according to Nobel Laureate Daniel Kahneman [added 7/20/10]

Does money buy happiness? - "The study worked by asking people what their own income and happiness levels were and then asking them to estimate the happiness of people on lower or higher incomes than themselves. The participants' estimates of the happiness of people on high incomes was largely accurate, but they massively underestimated the happiness of people on lower incomes. The picture was the same in a second study that asked people to estimate how happy they'd be if they earned more or less than they really did." I wonder if salaried people perceive hourly employees as less happy? [added 1/19/10]

Effects of exposure to luxury goods - And in a related story..."Luxury does not necessarily induce people to be 'nasty' toward others but rather causes them to be less concerned about or considerate toward others. Experiment 1 showed that when primed with luxury, people are more likely to endorse self-interested business decisions (profit maximization), even at the expense of others. Experiment 2 further demonstrated that exposure to luxury is likely to activate self-interest but not the tendency to harm others." [added 1/19/10]

Happier if you were richer? - Here's an interesting article, "Would you be happier if you were richer?: A focusing illusion," from Daniel Kahneman and others. "When people consider the impact of any single factor on their well-being -- not only income -- they are prone to exaggerate its importance; we refer to this tendency as the focusing illusion." The authors conclude that although we generally are not happier with more income we convince ourselves we will be by focusing on the perceived benefits of greater income such as more free time. However, they find that this focus is an illusion because greater income does not usually lead to more free time or other imagined benefits. [added 12/27/06]


Articles, Books, and Book Chapters (available online)


Handbook of Well-being - a freely-available, new book through Noba Scholar

National Research Council. Subjective Well-Being: Measuring Happiness, Suffering, and Other Dimensions of Experience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2013.


Book Chapters

Anik, L., Aknin, L. B., Norton, M. I., & Dunn, E W. (2010). Feeling good about giving: The benefits (and costs) of self-interested charitable behavior. In D. M. Oppenheimer & C. Y. Olivola (Eds.), The science of giving: Experimental approaches to the study of charity. Psychology Press.

Burke, P. J. (1996). Social identities and psychosocial stress, pp. 141-174 in Howard Kaplan, Psychosocial Stress: Perspectives on Structure, theory, Life Course, and Methods. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.

Burke, P. J. (2003). Interaction in small groups, in John DeLamater (Ed.) Handbook of Social Psychology, New York: Kluwer-Plenum.

Burke, P. J. (2004). Identities, events, and moods, in Turner, J. (ed) Advances in Group Processes. Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press.

Burke, P. J. & Harrod, M. (2005). Too much of a good thing. Social Psychology Quarterly, 68, 359-374.

Burke, P. J. & Stets, J. E. (2000). Femininity/Masculinity, pp. 997-1005 in Edgar F. Borgatta and Rhonda J. V. Montgomery (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Sociology, Revised Edition. New York: Macmillan.

Chaiken, S., Giner-Sorolla, R. & Chen, S. (1996). Beyond accuracy: Defense and impression motives in heuristic and systematic information processing. In P.M. Gollwitzer & J.A. Bargh (Eds.), The psychology of action: Linking cognition and motivation to behavior (pp. 553-578). New York: Guilford Press.

Chance, Z., & Norton, M. I. (2008). I read Playboy for the articles: Justifying and rationalizing questionable preferences. In The Interplay of Truth and Deception, edited by M. S. McGlone and M. L. Knapp. Routledge, 2008.

Chen, S. (2001). The role of theories in mental representations and their use in social perception: A theory-based approach to significant-other representations and transference. In G.B. Moskowitz (Ed.), Cognitive social psychology: The legacy and future of social cognition (pp.125-142). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Chen, S., & Andersen, S. M. (1999). Relationships from the past in the present: Significant-other representations and transference in interpersonal life. In M.P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 31, pp. 123-190). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Chen, S., & Chaiken, S. (1999). The heuristic-systematic model in its broader context. In S. Chaiken & Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual-process theories in social and cognitive psychology (pp. 73-96). New York: Guilford Press.

Diener, E. F., Napa Scollon, C. & Lucas, R. E. (2003). The evolving concept of subjective well-being: the multifaceted nature of happiness. Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology, vol. 15, 187–219 Elsevier Science B.V.

Diener, E. F. & Oishi, S. Are Scandinavians happier than Asians? Issues in comparing nations on subjective well-being. Chapter to appear in: F. Columbus (Ed.), Politics and Economics of Asia. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.

Dijksterhuis, A., Albers, L.W., & Bongers, K.C.A. Digging for the real attitude: Lessons from research on implicit and explicit self-esteem. In R. Petty, R. Fazio, & P. Brinol, (Eds.,) Attitudes: Insights from the New Wave of Implicit Measures, 229-250. New York: Psychology Press.

Dill, J.C., & Anderson, C.A. (1999). Loneliness, Shyness, and Depression: The Etiology and Interrelationships of Everyday Problems in Living. In T. Joiner & J.C. Coyne (Eds.), The interactional nature of depression: Advances in interpersonal approaches. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Dunn, E. W., Forrin, N. D., & Ashton-James, C. E. (2008). On the excessive rationality of the emotional imagination: A two systems account of affective forecasts and experiences. In K. D. Markman, W. M. P. Klein, & J. A. Suhr (Eds.), The handbook of imagination and mental simulation. New York: Psychology Press.

Farnham, S. D., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji (1999). Implicit self-esteem. In D. Abrams & M. Hogg (Eds.), Social identity and social cognition (pp. 230-248). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.

Fitzsimons, G. M. & Bargh, J. A. (2004). Automatic self-regulation. In Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (Eds.), Handbook of Self-Regulation: Research, Theory, and Applications (pp. 151 - 170). New York: Guilford Press.

Freese, L. L., & Burke, P.J. (1994). Persons, identities and social interaction. Pp. 1-24 in B. Markovsky, et al. (eds.) Advances in Group Processes, Vol. 11. Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press.

Greenwald, A. G. (1997). Self-knowledge and self-deception: Further consideration. In M. S. Myslobodsky (Ed.), The mythomanias: An inquiry into the nature of deception and self-deception (pp. 51-71). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Grolnick, W. S., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1997). Internalization within the family: The self-determination theory perspective. In J. E. Grusec & L. Kuczynski (Eds.), Parenting and children's internalization of values: A handbook of contemporary theory (pp. 135-161). New York: Wiley.

Hall, D., & Payne, B. K., (2010). Unconscious attitudes, unconscious influence, and challenges to self-control. In Y. Trope, K. Ochsner, & R. Hassin (Eds.), Social, cognitive & neuroscientific approaches to self-control. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Hill S. E. & Buss, D. M. (2008) The evolution of self-esteem. In M. Kernis (Ed.) Self-esteem Issues and Answers: A Source Book of Current Perspectives. New York: Guilford.

Jost, J.T., Burgess, D., & Mosso, C. (2001). Conflicts of legitimation among self, group, and system: The integrative potential of system justification theory. In J.T. Jost and B. Major (Eds.), The psychology of legitimacy: Emerging perspectives on ideology, justice, and intergroup relations (pp. 363-388). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Jost, J.T., & Elsbach, K. (2001). How status and power differences erode personal and social identities at work: A system justification critique of organizational applications of social identity theory. In M.A. Hogg & D.J. Terry (Eds.), Social identity processes in organizational contexts (pp. 181-196). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.

Jost, J.T., Fitzsimons, G.M., & Kay, A.C. (2004). The ideological animal: A system justification view. In J. Greenberg, S.L. Koole, & T. Pyszczynski (Eds.) Handbook of experimental existential psychology (pp. 263-282). New York: Guilford Press.

Lee-Chai, A. Y., Chen, S., & Chartrand, T. L. (2001). From Moses to Marcos: Individual differences in the use and abuse of power. In A.Y. Lee-Chai & J.A. Bargh (Eds.), The use and abuse of power: Multiple perspectives on the causes of corruption (pp. 57-74). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. In S. Fiske (Ed.), Annual Review of Psychology (Vol. 52; pp. 141-166). Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews, Inc.

Silvia, P. J., & Duval, T. S. (2004). Self-awareness, self-motives, and self-motivation. In R. A. Wright, J. Greenberg, & S. S. Brehm (Eds.), Motivational analyses of social behavior: Building on Jack Brehm's contributions to psychology (pp. 57-75). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Stets, J. E. & Burke, P. J. (2005). A sociological approach to self and identity. Mark Leary and June Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of Self and Identity, Guilford Press.

Suls, J., & Krizan, Z. (2005). On the relationships between explicit and implicit global self-esteem and personality. In Marsh, H., Craven, R.G., & McInerney, D.M. (Eds.), New Frontiers of Self Research (Vol. 2). Greenwich, CT: Information Age.

Swann, W. B., Jr. (1983). Self-verification: Bringing social reality into harmony with the self. In J. Suls & A. G. Greenwald (Eds.), Social psychological perspectives on the self (Vol. 2, pp. 33-66). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Swann, W. B., Jr. (1990). To be adored or to be known: The interplay of self-enhancement and self-verification. In R. M. Sorrentino & E. T. Higgins (Eds.) Foundations of Social Behavior, (Vol. 2, pp. 408-448). New York: Guilford.

Swann, W.B., Jr., & Bosson, J. (2008). Identity negotiation: A theory of self and social interaction. In O. John, R. Robins, & L. Pervin (Eds.) Handbook of Personality Psychology: Theory and Research. New York: Guilford.

Swann, W. B., Jr., Chang-Schneider, C., & Angulo, S. (2007). Self-verification in relationships as an adaptive process. In J. Wood, A. Tesser & J. Holmes (Eds.) Self and Relationships, Psychology Press: New York.

Swann, W.B., Jr., Rentfrow, P. J., & Guinn, J. (2002). Self-verification: The search for coherence. In M. Leary and J. Tagney, Handbook of self and identity. Guilford: New York.

Tetlock, P.E. (1998). Losing our religion: On the precariousness of precise normative standards in complex accountability systems. In R. Kramer & M. Neale (Eds.), Influence processes in organizations: Emerging themes in theory and research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Tetlock, P. E. & Lerner, J. (1999). The social contingency model: Identifying empirical and normative boundary conditions on the error-and-bias portrait of human nature. In S. Chaiken & Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual process models in social psychology. New York: Guilford Press.

Updegraff, J. A., & Taylor, S. E. (2000). From vulnerability to growth: Positive and negative effects of stressful life events. In J. H. Harvey & E. Miller (Eds.), Loss and Trauma: General and Close Relationship Perspectives (pp. 3-28). Philadelphia: Brunner-Routledge.

Wegner, D. M. (1980). The self in prosocial action. In D. M. Wegner & R. R. Vallacher (Eds.), The self in social psychology (pp. 131-157). New York: Oxford University Press.

Wegner, D. M. (1988). Stress and mental control. In S. Fisher & J. Reason (Eds.), Handbook of life stress, cognition, and health (pp. 685-699). Chichester: Wiley.

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