An annotated collection of more than 5000 links to resources and ideas for the teaching of social psychology and related courses organized by topic





Attitudes & Behavior

Attraction & Relationships

Conflict & Peacemaking


Genes, Gender, & Culture

Group Influence





Psychology in the Courtroom

Social Beliefs & Judgments

The Self
































Activities and Exercises



Multimedia Resources (audio, video, images)


Topic Resources


Class Assignments

Articles, Books, and Book Chapters

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Activities and Exercises


Interpreting police body-cam footage - Here is an excellent activity in which your students can view body-cam footage in three scenarios. How do they interpret it? How do their prior beliefs influence those interpretations?

Gender Binary Activity - created by Rachel Kubicki, Imara Peralta, and Sara Anne Groth

Gender Name Activity - created by Sara Anne Groth

Male as Normative Activity - created by Traci Stewart and Mary E. Kite

Reducing stereotype threat in your course - Here are a few suggestions.

Simulations of White privilege - Chris Wetzel graciously shares these excellent simulations which “demonstrate how privilege creates racial disparities because Whites escape the chronic stress that People of Color experience. The simulations reveal the psychological effects of privilege that help maintain privilege. You can include the simulations as a homework assignment or as an in-class/workshop exercise.  The simulations are based on the psychological literature on implicit bias, stereotyping, micro-aggressions, driving and shopping while black, job discrimination, racial exclusion, adverse childhood experience disparities, medical disparities, problems with racialized feedback, witnessing racial insults, hearing ambiguous racial remarks, and racial double consciousness.

The data generated from the simulation (with Qualtrics) is a shared resource. Several validation studies have shown that the simulations can reduce racial prejudice, the belief in a meritocracy, and White’s sense of helplessness when thinking about racial inequality, while increasing a sense of personal privilege, the belief that racial bias exists, and shame about racial inequality.

This link gives a more detailed description of the simulations (links to example simulations can be found in the table therein):

 A summary of 3 validation studies can be found here:”

"How privileged are you?" - Here's a good checklist that students can complete to assess their level of privilege.  UPDATE: New commentary from a reader:
"On one hand, I love that discussions about privilege are so mainstream that it is a quiz on Buzzfeed! However, I have some concerns about sharing this particular checklist with students, especially without additional context and a careful and thorough debrief. This checklist is based off of academic work on privilege, so the content itself is not my issue, but by adding the checkboxes up and giving someone a score with verbal description but without additional context, I believe this checklist can be wildly misunderstood (and have seen evidence of this in my own FB world). First, the checklist format implies that privilege is additive and not intersectional (and that each identity privilege is equivalent, as seen in my low score, though I recognize the fact that I am white far outweighs gender, class, or religion based bias I have faced); and second, the verbal descriptions at low numbers of checks say things like "you're hardly privileged at all" and can reinforce misunderstandings (as seen on a friend's page where a White guy who grew up lower-middle class and perceives lots of discrimination based on the color of his skin and his gender and his atheism used his low score to ask for cookies and reparations)." 

So, in sum, a useful interactive format, but should be used with caution. 

Weapon bias - The link I had to this online simulation used in research on the weapon bias had disappeared years ago.  But here is that simulation!  Your students can test their own weapon bias.

“An engaging word game helps students grasp implicit bias”

“Increasing inclusiveness and awareness: Diversity in introductory psychology” - This extensive set of resources was created for intro psych, but many of the ideas and activities could be used in social psych as well. 

Implicit bias - C. Nathan DeWall discusses the IAT and implicit biases, and then he suggests a couple activities addressing these ideas.

Sorting people - The first link is to activity from Leslie Berntsen which adapts an online demo I had previously linked to on the Resources website.  Can your students tell which race different people actually are?  Here is an interesting article on research regarding how we interact with racially ambiguous people.

LGBTQ+ Activities - A variety of activities from The Safe Zone Project

“Teaching students how to celebrate racial diversity”

Privilege exercise

Confront and contest your stigma

Implicit bias and police work

C'est la vie! The game of social life - This role-playing game teaches about "privilege, oppression, and intersectionality."

"Teaching about psychosocial aspects of disability: Emphasizing person-environment relations" - This is an excellent article by Dana Dunn in Teaching of Psychology that describes a variety of topics to consider when teaching about disability, and discusses the value of teaching about disability.

Overcoming stigma

Does a belief in biological origins of mental illness increase or decrease its stigma? - David Myers reviews some recent research on this question and suggests how to bring it into the classroom.  Be sure and see the parallel item below on genetic sources of criminal activity and jurors' responses to it.

"Using Shrek to teach about stigma"

"The psychology of extremism" - David Myers suggests an activity to accompany Michael Hogg's article/theory on why some people move toward extremism.   As I read Dave's discussion of this topic and suggested discussion questions, I thought of one I might ask next time.  The article notes that despite our similarities we tend to focus on our differences.  So, I think I will pick out a student in class and ask him/her to describe the two of us.  Describe me in relation to you.  Then I will ask the class what they heard.  I suspect the person will primarily identify differences between us.  Of course, sometimes they surprise me! [6/30/15]

Demonstration of implicit prejudice and stereotypes - [6/30/15]

Teaching about sexual orientation - David Myers provides a good summary of related research and some suggestions for addressing this controversial topic in your classes. [6/30/15]

Activities for teaching about prejudice and discrimination - Wow. This one's great. Mary Kite and her seminar students, with some additional help, created this extensive set of activities to address the reduction of prejudice and discrimination. They also created several public service announcements which can be found here. And all of these resources are neatly organized and accessible at a website they created here. Thanks for all the work that went into this resource. [added 2/20/14]

Using Current Directions in Psychological Science - two more excellent sets of ideas from Dave Myers and Nathan DeWall for using a couple recent Current Directions articles in class [added 1/2/14]

Exercises for the Schelling game - A while back I posted a link to an online activity developed by Scott Plous of based on an essay by Nobel Laureate Thomas Schelling. Brian Garber has developed and is graciously sharing two exercises which use the Schelling activity. Here and here (newly updated 3/9/18) are links which take you to Brian's exercises. You may be able to use them or adapt them for your courses. [added 12/08/12]

"Reducing mental illness stigma in the classroom" - [added 6/11/12]

Language and stereotyping - "The authors describe a demonstration of stereotype use in everyday language that focuses on common phrases reflecting stereotypic beliefs about ethnic groups or nationalities. The exercise encourages students’ discussion of stereotype use. Students read 13 common phrases from the English language and stated whether they had used each phrase and whether the meaning of the phrase is positive or negative. Evaluations of the exercise showed that it is effective for increasing awareness of stereotype usein everyday language. The authors provide suggested topics for class discussion." Some of the phrases include "Chinese fire drill," "Dutch treat," "Excuse my French," and "Indian giver." [added 6/10/12]

The Similarity Project - In one version of this activity, starting in groups of four, students are asked to identify as many similarities as they can between their different groups. Then they join larger and larger groups to see if they can identify even more similarities. [added 12/29/11]

Heterosexual privilege questionnaire - Students can complete this questionnaire to get a sense of some of the less obvious advantages heterosexuals have over homosexuals. You could have a good discussion about the results. This questionnaire could also be used in conjunction with another assignment and related questionnaire I shared a few years ago, which you can see here. [added 12/29/11]

Multicultural teaching: Information and strategies - an extensive set of resources for teaching multicultural topics and issues from the Center for Research on Learning and Teaching at the University of Michigan [added 12/29/11]

Intergroup Monopoly - Richard Harvey was the winner of this year's Social Psychology Network Action Teaching Award with this innovative game. "Intergroup Monopoly is an action teaching game that modifies the classic Monopoly board game to explore the dynamics of group-based inequality. In Intergroup Monopoly, players begin with unequal amounts of money and are given individualized rules that reflect differing degrees of privilege or disadvantage." Read more about it at the above link. [added 4/1/11]

Homelessness - Kristie Campana sent me a link to an interesting and well-designed interactive site where you or your students can role-play a low-income person trying to make it through the month, and avoid homelessness. [added 4/1/11]

Prejudice reduction exercise - Tim Lawson, Tracy McDonough, and James Bodle published an article in the latest issue of Teaching of Psychology describing a Prejudice Log Assignment that leads to an in-class Prejudice Reduction Exercise. Tim has graciously permitted me to share the assignment, exercise, and materials with you here. The exercise begins on page 3. [added 12/4/10]

Using the IAT in class - Are you concerned that students might have a negative reaction to completing one or more of the Implicit Association Tests found at the above link? To examine this concern, Kathryn Morris and Leslie Ashburn-Nardo reported in the latest issue of Teaching of Psychology that they tested students' affect before, during, and after use of the IAT in their classes. Students "reported more positive than negative affect both immediately after taking the IAT and one week later. They also reported greater awareness of their own and others' implicit racial biases, knowledge of implicit processes, and perceived value of the IAT demonstration." [added 6/19/10]

Increasing or decreasing segregation - Developed by creator, Scott Plous, and his team, this new interactive, online exercise illustrates how easily segregation can occur, as originally conceived by Nobel Laureate Thomas Schelling. You can display this exercise in class or send your students to it to consider relevant issues. [added 1/13/10]

A variety of activities - some more good ideas from the excellent site [added 6/23/09]

Michael Richards' outburst: Racist or "ragist"? - Here's an interesting debate you can have in your class regarding the actor Michael Richards' tirade against hecklers in a comedy club that was filled with a lot of racist comments. Columnist Eric Zorn asks: Did Richards' outburst arise from racism, or was it the result of an uncontrollable anger problem? As Zorn suggests, "Maybe the impulse to use those words came not from a desire to express his deepest, hidden views on the inherent comparative value of the races but from a momentary desire to inflict as much pain verbally as he could upon people at whom he was unjustifiably but extremely furious." Is it possible to rattle off a list of racial slurs without a racist intent or without it revealing a deep-seeded prejudice? Here is video of Richards' outburst. [added 1/1/07]

Stereotyping and segregation - an in-class activity "to show how even mild affiliative preferences at the individual level can lead to surprisingly strong patterns of segregation at the group level, without any intentional desire or plan for segregation" -- from Scott Plous' course on The Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination [added 7/5/06]

"Responding to prejudice: A role-playing exercise" - an in-class activity "to give students an opportunity to try out and evaluate the effectiveness of various responses to prejudiced comments" -- also from Scott Plous' course on The Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination [added 7/5/06]

"How much do you know about inequality?" - an interactive online quiz [added 7/5/06]

Who has the power in society? Jessica Stahl shared this activity she experienced in a course:

"Here's an activity we did in a multicultural course I took in my doctoral program that is particularly good for conversations about hierarchies:

The instructor split the class into 2 groups--the white students and the non-white students and had each group sit in one line of chairs facing one another. (So, all the white students in one row facing the middle of the room and all the racial minority students in one row facing the middle of the room.) Then she us told that, without speaking, each group had to arrange themselves in terms of descending order of "power" held in society, with the student in each group holding the most power sitting in the chair closest to the board, and the one with the least sitting in the chair closest tot the back of the room. (So, for example, in the white students group, the men ended up at the "top" of the row, followed by the christian women, followed by the jewish/queer women.) Once we all were arranged in chairs we had to discuss our own group's process in arranging ourselves without speaking and what we observed (if anything) in the other group. An interesting phenomenon that we talked about quite a bit as a result of this exercise is that in the white students group, everyone thought they should be seated "higher" than they were, and the opposite occurred in the minority students group. That expanded into a discussion about both identity and values. You could actually do this exercise several diffrent times using different criteria to anchor the scale students are placing themselves in..." [added 2/22/06]

Case study in unintentional racism - Developed by Bob Grossman and Thomas Ford, "this case study is designed to help you explore your attitudes about race and learn about the complexity of the concept of racism." [added 2/22/06]

Bob and Thomas would appreciate feedback from anyone who reads or uses this case study. You can e-mail Bob Grossman at and Thomas Ford at


Illusory correlations - Excellent PowerPoint demonstration adapted and developed by Marcel Yoder -- You can send students to this link and they can complete the activity, or you can use this as an in-class activity. As Marcel suggests and research has demonstrated, this illusory correlation between distinctive events can also be connected to stereotyping and prejudice. Scott Plous provides a good description of such a link in his overview of prejudice research at the Understanding Prejudice website. [added 1/8/06]

Facing History and Ourselves - Wow! I imagine some of you, particularly high school teachers, are familiar with this site. But I had not spent much time exploring it. There are a lot of good resources here. It is primarily geared to high school teachers, but there are activities, video clips, case studies and more that can be used by any instructor. Click on the Resources link to find some of these tools. For example, after going to the Resources page, click on the link to Online Modules. Some of these you will not be able to access. But the "Choose to Participate" module takes you to three different stories you and your students can investigate. Not in our town "examines how citizens in Billings, Montana came together to combat a series of hate crimes in 1993." Includes a fairly long video excerpt and other related resources. Worth exploring. [added 1/5/06]

Variety of activities - also provides an excellent collection of activities/lesson plans geared primarily to high school and collegiate levels to teach students to fight hate and promote tolerance. High quality. [added 1/5/06]

Variety of activities - This is an excellent site produced by a class at Ball State University. The page I have linked to "links" to a variety of exercises you can use in or out of class on prejudice, stereotyping and bullying. Unfortunately, the links were not working for me. However, if you put your cursor over the link of a particular activity, such as "KKK Application," which "illustrates how easily people might be lured into joining organizations that promote prejudice and intolerance," the full address of that activity should show up in the bottom-left corner of your screen. You can then type in that address to get to the actual activity. [added 1/5/06]

What is Race? - Here are a few interactive online activities designed to test one's knowledge about race. For example, you can try out "Sorting People," in which you can see if you can tell somebody's race by looking at them. This site accompanies the documentary "Race -- The power of an illusion." [added 1/5/06]

A role-playing exercise - Here is an article from Teaching of Psychology by Scott Plous describing an interesting exercise he has used. As the article notes, scenarios Scott has used for the role-playing are available on request from him. [added 4/8/05]

Geography Game - from Valerie Pruegger, this activity asks students to stand at various points in the room representing where they currently live relative to Calgary, Canada (the classroom's location) which is designated the center of the room. Then, students pick points, relative to Calgary, that represent where they were born, where there parents, grandparents, great-grandparents, etc. were born. Illustrates aspects of immigration, diversity and discrimination. Obviously can be adapted to other locales. [added 4/8/03]

Understanding/assessing prejudice - a few exercises with more to come at - created by Scott Plous and others as a supplement to Understanding Prejudice and Discrimination, McGraw-Hill [added 12/06/02]

Multimedia Resources (Audio / Video / Images)


Prejudice has lessened for race and sex, not so much for disability and age (22:01) - A podcast from Under the Cortex

"Can we unlearn biases?" (51:14) - A conversation with Mahzarin Banaji

"The social psychologist who works to reduce harm in policing" (48:00) - A podcast from NPR

Justice in America - a series of podcasts on criminal justice reform from The Appeal

America’s changing attitudes towards gay people (7:00) - an interesting discussion of how a more positive attitude has developed so rapidly over the last few decades

The impact of stereotype threat -- inside and outside the classroom - a podcast from Teaching in HigherEd

The Transgender Oral History Project

"African-American life in the Jim Crow South" - "It is the largest single collection of Jim Crow-era oral histories in the world: visitors to the site can listen to over 175 hours of recordings. Additionally, there are over 10,000 pages of transcripts from the interviews, which "capture the vivid personalities, poignant personal stories, and behind-the-scenes decision-making" that made up the African American experience in the South during this period." [added 2/20/14]

Some more oral histories from the U.S. civil rights era - [3/29/09]

Studs Terkel interviews - The death of author Studs Terkel has reminded many of his excellent interviews on topics such as race. Hear several here. [added 3/29/09]

Voices on Antisemitism - podcasts from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum [3/29/09]

"How Latino immigration is changing in America" - an American RadioWorks program [3/26/09]

"King's last march" - An audio documentary broken into five parts which describes the last year of Martin Luther King's life. [added 8/14/08]

The authoritarian personality - (1:03:27) Shrink Rap Radio talks with Robert Altemeyer on the authoritarian personality. Or, follow this link and read a book on the subject by Altemeyer freely available online. [added 5/24/08]

"Voices from the desegregation era" - [added 4/9/08]

"Hate crime and racism in Russia" - Part I - (17:51) and Part II - (13:15) From The Leonard Lopate show (Parts I and II) -- "Three years ago, the brutal murder of a 9-year old Tajik girl in Saint Petersburg turned international attention to the rise of neo-fascist groups and hate crime in Russia. Since then, the situation has not only gotten worse, it’s also fallen off the mainstream media radar. Attacks are up 28% since 2006, and many observers think the actual number of crimes is even greater. On the first part of Underreported, Leonard will be speaking with Paul LeGendre, Interim Director of the Fighting Discrimination Program at Human Rights First, and Nickolai Butkevich, Research and Advocacy Director at the Union of Councils for Jews in the Former Soviet Union." [added 12/12/07]

"Radio fights Jim Crow" - an audio essay (and slides) about a series of radio programs during World War II that tried to address the deep racial divide in the U.S. [added 7/06/07]

Great African-American speeches - Hear and read the transcripts of a fairly large collection of famous speeches over the past century, from American RadioWorks. [added 1/8/06]

"Voices from the days of slavery: Former slaves tell their stories" - a good collection of audio and photos from the American Memory project [added 4/5/04]

Ghetto Life 101 - (30:16) listen to this radio documentary about the life of two young boys on Chicago's South Side - transcript also available [added 11/07/02]



Calling in vs. calling out (14:18) - Interesting TED Talk from Loretta J. Ross on efforts to combat hate

"How we can make racism a solvable problem" (12:04) - a TED Talk from Phillip Atiba Goff

"You can tell" (1:02)

"Teaching kids about race and racial justice" (42:24) - APA and Sesame Street team up!

"Where are you from?" (2:19) - Microaggressions

"White fragility in the workplace" (5:15) - Amusing satire

"Don't be a sucker!" (7:17) - Interesting short film made by the U.S. government in the 1940's to discourage succumbing to those pushing stereotypes and prejudice. Unfortunately, still very relevant today.

"Police conduct may bend to local biases" (1:13)

Series of talks on racial topics - from last year's APS Conference

"Tech exec resigns after anti-Semitic email rant" (3:33)

Critical Race Theory (CRT) (3:00) - The tweet from Alex Wagner on this page includes an interview of Patti Hidalgo Menders.  Menders is one of the many parents who see CRT as a threat.  I have to agree with one thing she says: We will hear less about racism if we talk about it less. 

Please don't use the word "racism" (0:15)

The missing white woman syndrome (5:46) - Here is a good segment from PBS news on "How prejudice affects official search for missing Indigenous women, other women of color."  The recent, sad case of Gabby Petito reminds us of this disparity in the media.

The contact conundrum (59:33) - An interview with social psychologist Linda Tropp in which she discusses her research on contact between groups

- Videos on prejudice and discrimination - from the excellent Breaking the Prejudice Habit site from Mary Kite and colleagues

The psychological science of racism (1:17:40) - APS convened a panel of experts to discuss this topic.

Asian-American racism (4:58) - From John Oliver on Last Week Tonight

"Ted Talks to help you understand racism in America"

The White Savior in movies (5:51) - The first link is to an amusing satire of how movies about Black people often have White saviors — from Late Night with Seth Meyers.  Here (21:10) is a video explaining this trope in such movies.

In-group bias (4:05) - Here is a fun video in which Jimmy Kimmel’s show entices diehard San Francisco Niner’s fans to dress in the Super Bowl rival Kansas City Chiefs’ apparel and make pro-Chiefs statements.

The Eugenics Crusade (1:53:12) - PBS has produced an excellent video on the eugenics movement that swept the U.S. in the early part of the 20th century.

Racial profiling (12:16) - very good example in this video

“Can you change implicit bias?” (3:32) - a talk with social psychologist Mahzarin Banaji

Is this new Heineken beer ad racist? (0:30) - “Lighter is better.”

New film about Stone Mountain, GA and its links to the Confederacy (10:30)

Talks on inequality from a variety of fields - videos and podcasts

“A Night at the Garden” (7:05) - This is a brief but very disturbing film of a German-American rally held in Madison Square Garden in New York City in 1939.

"Dating apps linked to rise in interracial marriages" (1:52)      

Boiler Video Project - The Division of Diversity and Inclusion at Purdue University has created a series of videos that can be used to promote positive engagement around difficult topics on diversity and inclusion.  Talking points are also included.

"How White nationalism became normal online" (18:31) - video and article from The Intercept

A documentary of Charlottesville, VA (22:05) - This is a powerful, on-the-ground look at the events and people of those hours. from HBO's Vice News Tonight.  Lots of opportunity for discussion around this video.

 "Don't be a sucker" (17:21) - This 1943 U.S. government film about fascism recently went viral after what happened in Charlottesville, VA.

"Environmental racism is the new Jim Crow" (1:27)

This is your brain on drug policy (1:21) - This ad discusses racial bias in drug policy.

25 mini-films - brief interviews/descriptions examining race, bias, and identify with students

Asian stereotypes (5:20) - amusing The Daily Show segment mocking a reporter's "racist Chinatown segment"

Stop-and-frisk (7:50) - an amusing and serious analysis from The Daily Show on the effects of stop-and-frisk policy of police departments

Unboxing mistreatment of Native Americans (3:10) - Video reviews some of the ways Native Americans have been mistreated.

"We only tip citizens" (6:13) - That was written on a waitress' receipt.

Most racist ad ever? (0:49) - Some are calling this Chinese detergent ad just that.

Muslim kids read letters written by Japanese internment kids from WWII (2:32) - Here is a link to the video.

Sexual racism in online dating (5:27) - a humorous look from The Daily Show -- warning: language

Harriet Tubman on the U.S. $20 bill (4:07) - a humorous take from Full Frontal with Samantha Bee

"Put racism in its place" (0:54) - a nice little ad

How the media treats White vs. Black "riots" (2:25)

White on White violence - (7:04) a spoof from Chris Hayes on the obsession with Black on Black violence [added 7/23/15]

So, you are about to become a minority - (3:14) amusing video preparing Whites for the fall of White privilege when they become a minority in the U.S. in the near future [added 7/23/15]

Fraternity's racist chant - (9:44) Here is The Daily Show's take on that recent episode. [added 7/23/15]

Blacks pointing must equal gang signs - (4:33) "Minneapolis Mayor Betsy Hodges was recently accused of making "gang signs" when she posed for a photo with a get-out-the-vote volunteer, who was African-American."  The Daily Show takes on this double standard. [added 7/21/15]

Anti-immigration insanity - (5:28) As could only be delivered by The Daily Show [added 7/21/15]

From Jose to Joe - (1:10) Anecdotal case of a man who received no replies to his job applications until he changed his first name from Jose to Joe on his applications. [added 7/21/15]

"Video oral histories of Japanese American students in World War II" - [added 7/21/15]

New Honey Maid commercial responds to hate - (1:44) Below is a recent Honey Maid ad celebrating all kinds of families, including gay and interracial ones.  Not surprisingly, there was quite a bit of backlash from some quarters.  Here is Honey Maid's excellent response. [added 7/21/15]

Gay and interracial families in an ad - (0:31) Honey Maid graham crackers celebrates all kinds of families . [added 7/21/15]

"These six commercials make a huge statement without ever mentioning race" - [added 7/21/15]

Black guy breaks into a car... - (1:42) and a White guy breaks into the same car.  Not credible evidence by itself, but a good illustration of what research has found. [added 7/21/15]

Names - (3:02) amusing Key and Peele video about the difference between African-American and Caucasian first names [added 2/20/14]

Cheerios' mixed-race family commercial is attacked - (1:56) [added 8/19/13]

"How race in America's classrooms affects achievement" - (45:44) This is an invited address at the 2012 APA convention given by Beverly Daniel Tatum, president of Spelman College. [added 12/07/12]

Anti-stop-and-frisk video - (5:55) Very compelling first-person case of an African-American teenager who says he has been stopped by NYC police 60-70 times [added 9/10/12]

"Prejudice" - (6:44) another great song by Tim Minchin [added 6/27/12]

"Slavery by Another Name" - (1:24:56) Excellent and very troubling PBS documentary describes the little known story of how slavery did not end with the Emancipation Proclamation. It just took another very harrowing form. Full program is available here. [added 6/25/12]

Jeremy Lin skit - (4:00) This skit from Saturday Night Live highlights how it is "okay" to express some racial stereotypes while others are considered out of bounds.
[added 6/25/12]

"The Interrupters" - (1:54:42) This is a PBS documentary describing how former gang members and perpetrators of violence are trying now to interrupt that cycle. Full program is available here. [added 6/25/12]

Huckleberry Finn and the N-word - (12:27) 60 Minutes had an interesting episode on the controversy about whether schools should use the new version of Huckleberry Finn which excludes the use of the N-word. You can watch the entire episode here. [added 4/25/11]

"Racist" rant from UCLA student - (2:51) This video has made the rounds quite a bit. A student makes a spontaneous video about her experience with Asians in the library. The link above is to the video; here is a link to an article describing her decision to leave the university. [added 4/25/11]

Perpetuating stereotypes - (1:23) An open letter from 30 prominent Israeli rabbis' wives urges, among other things, Israeli girls to avoid dating Arabs. [added 4/24/11]

Race in America - (3:27) Here's a nice montage of clips from The Daily Show on Obama, race, and "my America." [added 7/27/10]

Teachers with accents in Arizona - (2:45) [added 7/27/10]

Immigrants - (1:11) Video courtesy of U.S. Republican Senators [added 7/5/09]

Another version of the Black/White doll test - (5:31) done by ABC News with an accompanying story [added 7/3/09]

Clips from "American Black Journal" - (2:33) This show premiered in Detroit, MI in 1968. [3/29/09]

"Who can use the N-word?" - (9:37) This link takes you to part 1 of five videos capturing a debate and discussion about the use of the N-word between a political scientist and a professor of culture and communication. Could be used to prompt discussion in your class. [added 5/24/08]

The secret Black language -- Blanguage - (4:24) amusing video from The Daily Show [added 5/24/08]

Martin Luther King's "I have a dream" speech - (17:29) [added 4/9/08]

Darfur - (1:00:00) The entire Frontline program, "On our watch," is available online. [added 4/9/08]

"A Sunday in Clarkston" - (5:41) interesting story of a church's changing population which led it to adapt [added 4/2/08]

Jesus Colon's dilemma - (3:31) Read about and watch the story of Black and Puerto Rican Jesus Colon who, in the 1950s, encountered a white woman on a subway who was clearly in need of some help. Should he help? What went through his mind? Did he help? I'll let you find out. [added 4/2/08]

Anti-semitism - (42:36) story and recollections of Holocaust survivor Rena Finder, including a brief video [added 12/23/07]

Speech from F. W. de Klerk - "From Apartheid To Democracy" -- a speech from former South African President F. W. de Klerk [added 12/12/07]

Jena 6 - I assume those of you in the U.S. have heard of the case of the Jena 6, the six black students in Jena, Louisiana accused of beating a white student. The first link takes you to a good, detailed overview of the incident and the subsequent controversy. If you want to show a brief news clip about such an event, you can search the video sections of news sites such as ABC or CNN. This link takes you to a number of Jena 6 video clips from such a search at ABC News. This link is to one of the many accompanying stories in which two nooses were found hanging from the back of a pickup truck. [added 11/17/07]

Asian-American experience - (10:24) This video on identity is primarily composed of interviews of Asian-Americans at Columbia College, asking them what it means to be Asian-American. [added 7/8/07]

"Crayola Monologues" - (3:09) Just for fun - a fairly silly video about stereotyping involving crayons [added 7/8/07]

Survivor of Rwandan genocide - (13:00) You can read the transcript and watch the entire 60 Minutes episode about a woman who managed to escape the Rwandan genocide of 1994. She is just now telling her story. [added 12/27/06]

Steppin' - (55:25) I never heard of this "dance style popular today among black fraternities and sororities" -- probably because I teach at a small school. [added 12/27/06]

"A girl like me" - (7:15) I came across this interesting film created by a 17-year old high school student in which she attempts to recreate Kenneth and Mamie Clark's famous studies of black and white dolls which was integral to the 1954 Brown vs. Board of Education decision. More to the video as well. [added 12/12/06]

"Dealing with a racist cabbie" - A segment from an ABC's Primetime show in which unsuspecting riders encounter a cab driver who goes off on a racist tirade. The "driver" is a confederate in on the little stunt. How would you respond? Raises ethical questions for the riders and about the show itself. Would this make it through an IRB? [added 7/5/06]

Teenager's film on Holocaust survival - (4:49) By clicking on the first Launch button you see on this page (Movie tells Holocaust horror), you will be able to view the NBC story covering this teenage boy's film about his grandparents talking for the first time about their Holocaust experience. If you scroll down a little and click the Launch button by "Survivors' stories" you can view the entire film he created. [added 9/20/05]

Steven Spielberg Jewish Film Archive - The archive is in the process of making many films available for viewing online about the Holocaust and other Jewish experiences. More than 100 are available for viewing. [added 7/21/03]

"A Class Divided" - Frontline (PBS) rebroadcast its 1985 episode of the famous story of Jane Elliott, the 3rd grade teacher in rural Iowa, who in the late '60's began an exercise in her class in which she separated her white students into blue-eyed and brown-eyed kids to teach them lessons of discrimination. The entire episode can now be viewed online at this address. It begins with the fascinating original footage in Elliott's 3rd grade classroom and includes follow-up experiences since that time. The episode is broken into five segments online. I love when such material is made available online because I can pick certain clips to show in class or I can send students to view them outside of class. Nothing to put on reserve! [added 7/16/03]

The Two Nations of Black America [added 11/07/02]

Holocaust teaching guide - hundreds of images, videos and other resources

Sexual Orientation

Popular transgender whisky commercial (1:01) - from Spain

When Harry met Santa (3:56) - a Norwegian ad introducing a male partner for Santa Claus

Father and transgender daughter (7:18) - a very moving short film

Kikis with Louie (10:16) - This article describes a new web series, Kikis with Louie, which “features interviews with queer young people from six different cities across the country as well as celebrities creating groundbreaking visibility in sports and the arts.”  You can watch the first episode on this page.

Being gay then and now (11:13) - a conversation between a 13-year-old boy and a 76-year-old man about being gay

Ex-Westboro church members tells her story (15:17) - She tells a beautiful story that has a lot to teach us all.

A transgender story in an ad (0:53) - from Scandinavia

Families dealing with sexual orientation (2:45) - Here's another ad nicely capturing the challenge of changing certain attitudes and beliefs.  Why is it so easy in the above examples and so difficult here?

Transgender woman discusses the bathroom issue (1:00)

Coming out gay kiss in ad (0:46) - This condom ad from South Africa has created a lot of controversy.

John Oliver calls for an end to LGBT discrimination (14:45) - on his TV show Last Week Tonight

Music video with a transgender focus - (3:53) It raises a lot of good issues for discussion. [added 7/23/15]

Gay: I'm jealous of straight couples who casually hold hands in public - (19:15) interesting Tedx talk [added 7/23/15]

Burger King introduces the "Proud Whopper" - (1:55) Just for the San Francisco Gay Pride 2014 [added 7/21/15]

"What happens when a guy asks random guys for a date?" - (3:55) Here (3:55) is "girls asking girls."  Not scientific, but interesting discussion starters. [added 7/21/15]

New Honey Maid commercial responds to hate - (1:44) Below is a recent Honey Maid ad celebrating all kinds of families, including gay and interracial ones.  Not surprisingly, there was quite a bit of backlash from some quarters.  Here is Honey Maid's excellent response. [added 7/21/15]

Gay and interracial families in an ad - (0:31) Honey Maid graham crackers celebrates all kinds of families . [added 7/21/15]

Don't ask me why - (7:10) A good music video that draws parallels between the fight over interracial and LGBT relationships [added 6/29/15]

Answering questions about gays - (6:06) In response to India's recent recriminalization of homosexual behavior, an Indian comedian produced this amusing piece about anti-gay beliefs. [added 2/20/14]

French version of the "It gets better" videos for gays struggling with their lives - (1:50) [added 2/20/14]

History of Britain's changing attitudes towards gays since 1950s - (3:31) [added 8/19/13]

Anti-hate video - (1:20) [added 8/19/13]

"Jimmy Kimmel tests the audience's gaydar" - (4:16) [added 8/19/13]

Gay men will marry your girlfriends unless... - (2:32) Humorous video of gay men explaining how they will marry straight men's girlfriends if they don't support same-sex marriage. Here - (3:43) is a response video from straight men: "Go ahead!" [added 12/07/12]

Expedia creates dramatic ad for marriage equality - (3:20) [added 12/07/12]

Best of Stewart and Colbert on gay marriage - (2:24) Here's a good collection of bits from The Daily Show and the Colbert Report on the topic. [added 6/27/12]

Blaming the victim - (5:10) Stephen Colbert, poking fun at some comments, provides an amusing take on this as he advises gays "It's up to you to keep us from discriminating." [added 6/26/12]

NHL players push to reduce homophobia in hockey - (1:01) [added 6/26/12]

LGBT teens put out "like trash" - a story in Miami, FL about LGBT homelessness and rejection at home [added 6/25/12]

"Teen's powerful anti-bullying video" - (4:36) very compelling [added 1/21/12]

Ad for same-sex marriage - (1:56) from Australia [added 1/21/12]

Gay mayoral candidate releases first ad with own child - (0:33) [added 1/21/12]

"It gets better": Stephen Colbert - (2:23) [added 1/20/12]

San Francisco Giants and - (0:58) The Giants are the first professional sports team to create a video for the It Gets Better Project. The purpose of the project is described this way on the site: "Many LGBT youth can't picture what their lives might be like as openly gay adults. They can't imagine a future for themselves. So let's show them what our lives are like, let's show them what the future may hold in store for them." [added 8/14/11]

Therapy to change "feminine" boy - (8:56) CNN report about a sad but interesting case of a government-funded program to eliminate a boy's feminine behavior [added 8/14/11]

Humorous mockumentary for a gay Canadian rugby team - (3:01) [added 8/14/11]

NHL hockey player's support for marriage equality, and reaction - Sean Avery joined the Campaign for Marriage Equality in New York; read an agent's reaction. A video Avery created for it is included. Also included is a "It gets better" video from a famous rugby player. See more about the It Gets Better project below. [added 8/14/11]

It Gets Better Project - Videos from LGBT individuals letting others know that their lives can get better. "Many LGBT youth can't picture what their lives might be like as openly gay adults. They can't imagine a future for themselves. So let's show them what our lives are like, let's show them what the future may hold in store for them." [added 8/14/11]

Boys Beware (1961) - (10:12) "Anti-homosexual film targeted at teenage boys, urging them to avoid encounters with potential molesters." [added 4/24/11]

Defense of gay marriage - (3:01) "A 19-year-old University of Iowa engineering student defended gay marriage in a rousing testimony in front of the Iowa House of Representatives this week." [added 4/24/11]

Inconsistency, contradiction, and prejudice - (5:18) amusing Daily Show clip about John McCain's repeated inconsistent statements on allowing homosexuals in the military that likely reveal and protect a prejudice [added 12/16/10]

"Everything but marriage" in the state of Washington - (5:48) An amusing piece by Stephen Colbert skewering those who are opposed to Washington's passed legislation to give gay and lesbian partners all the rights of a married couple [added 1/15/10]

Bank ad with transgender theme - (1:16) From Argentina, a very sensitive ad -- would it play in your country? [added 7/3/09]

"That's so gay" -- harmless or harmful? - (1:05) This site makes the point that phrases like "that's so gay" are offensive. Watch some very effective commercials illustrating the point. I particularly like the "that's so Emma and Julia" one. [added 7/3/09]

First openly transgender mayor in U.S. - (1:45) see video story [3/29/09]

Snickers runs another "homophobic TV ad" - (0:31) [added 3/22/09]

Twee Vaders - (2:58) A young boy signs a song about having two fathers and some of the discrimination he faces. The song is apparently in Dutch with English subtitles. To our Dutch readers, what is the cultural acceptance of such in a song in your country, if it is from your country? [added 12/27/06]

Assault on Gay America - the five-minute video excerpt from this program is an excellent clip to show in class addressing some of the motivation behind these hate crimes [added 11/07/02]


Documentary on Intersex individuals -- Every Body (34:39) - This is a show about the documentary and its trailer.

Clever ad addresses bias in perception of women's soccer (1:56)

Women's History Month - APS has collected a number of videos discussing research on gender bias and discrimination.

Humorous video on misogyny (2:11)

"Lewd" video gets Navy captain relieved of duty - [added 4/24/11]


Other Videos

When we "unbox" each other (3:35) - A variation on a video I have seen before in which we blur category lines

Diversity science - Here are a few researchers describing their study of diversity.

Stereotypes (5:35)

“How inequality affects the way we think, live, and die” (32:00) - a podcast from NPR’s Hidden Brain

Face tattoos - a comedian with face tattoos discusses stereotypes he encounters.

Powerful ad from Denmark (3:00) - What happens if we stop putting people in boxes and recognize what we have in common?

Honey Maid takes on Islamophobia in America (0:31)

"Homeless people read mean tweets about themselves" - (1:19) could be a powerful message [added 7/23/15]

"Muslim in America" - "The diversity of Muslims in the United States is vast, and so is the breadth of the Muslim American experience. The following animated videos depict the experiences of nine Muslim Americans from across the country who differ in heritage, age, gender and occupation. Relaying short anecdotes representative of their everyday lives, these Muslim Americans demonstrate both the adversities and blessings of Muslim American life." [added 7/23/15]

Claude Steele discusses his research - (48:45) [added 7/23/15]

One strategy for reducing homelessness - (5:29) brought to us humorously from The Daily Show [added 7/23/15]

APS talk by Mahzarin Banaji - (1:00:24) Entitled "Group love: How the mind creates 'us' and 'them'" [added 7/21/15]

"I got fat-shamed on my morning commute" - (8:18) Weightism is still an acceptable form of prejudice.  Here's a couple more examples. [added 7/21/15]
Another example that fat-shaming is still "okay" - (1:20) On a national sportscast, Charles Barkley and cohosts make fun of the weight of women in San Antonio.  Would Donald Sterling be losing his Los Angeles Clippers team if he had told his girlfriend not to post pictures of herself with an overweight person?  What other groups could he have got away with disparaging? [added 7/21/15]

Ford's response to Cadillac ad - (1:01) A couple issues ago I sent you a link to a Cadillac ad that seemed to promote just-world beliefs.  This Ford ad is a nice response.  The link also includes the original Cadillac ad. [added 7/21/15]

Weightism last acceptable form of prejudice? - (3:03) This article and accompanying trailer for a new documentary on "plus-size models" raises some interesting questions. [added 7/21/15]

Stereotyping of Iowans - (1:51) Amusing video put out during the Iowa caucases, or is that caucasi? Warning: Some strong language. I know, who thought Iowans talked that way? [added 6/25/12]

Muslim TV show not stereotypical enough - (5:00) Amusing Daily Show clip about people who are protesting the TV show All-American Muslims because it is portraying some Muslims as non-terrorists. Seriously. [added 6/25/12]

Harassment of Muslim-Americans - (5:52) [added 4/25/11]

NYPD spies on Muslim students - (2:23) [added 6/25/12]

Is Peter King an Islamophobe? - (3:42) U.S. Representative Peter King held hearings on "The Extent of Radicalization in the American Muslim Community and that Community's Response. Do the claims in this video along with the accompanying fact checks indicate bigotry in Peter King?
[added 4/25/11]

The Daily Show take on the ground zero mosque critics - (6:33)The first link is to The Daily Show video; here is more info on the story. [added 10/3/10]

Group biases in primates - (3:40) interesting video of researcher Laurie Santos who discusses outgroup biases in monkeys [added 1/20/12]

Video collection from - a lot of good brief videos organized by topics
[added 1/20/12]

50 state stereotypes in 2 minutes - (2:03) I don't know what you might do with this, but here it is. If you come up with a good use for it let me know. [added 8/14/11]

"Muslim-baiting ad" among many this political season - (0:31) [added 12/16/10]

"Cult-like" group's suicide scare - (1:37) If members of a cult-like group are missing they must be contemplating mass suicide, right? [added 10/9/10]

Criminalization of the mentally ill - (22:18) Interesting and disturbing story of how the mentally ill end up in prison and how they are treated there [added 10/3/10]

The stigma of mental illness - (1:56) A good, brief video on this stigma -- here (1:26) is another one. [added 7/3/09]

Libraries and autism - (9:43) Videos that try to educate about how individuals with an autism spectrum disorder can best be served in a library.
[added 7/3/09]

Conversation with Banaji and Greenwald on the IAT - (14:13) [added 4/15/08]

The Mormons - The entire four-hour Frontline program on the Mormon religion is available online. [added 4/15/08]

"Not in our Town" - (3:19) Watch a fairly lengthy clip from the documentary about hate crimes in Billings, Montana and how the community responded. Other materials here as well. [added 4/2/08]



"Black citizenship in the age of Jim Crow" - "Welcome to Black Citizenship in the Age of Jim Crow. This virtual tour of New-York Historical Society’s 2018 traveling exhibit recounts the dramatic, national story of the struggle for Black equality after the end of slavery."

Cartoon: White privilege

New Yorker cover of the U.S. Supreme Court ruling on DOMA - Ernie and Bert enjoy the news of the striking down of the Defense of Marriage Act. [added 8/19/13]

National African American Photographic Archive - [added 8/19/13]

Tulsa race riot of 1921 - a large collection of postcards and photographs [added 1/20/12]

"Images of the anti-slavery movement in Massachusetts" - [added 4/9/08]

Photos from Auschwitz - "Auschwitz through the lens of the SS: Photos of Nazi leadership at the camp" is a collection at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. [added 1/25/08]

Boston African Americana Project - Lots of images of pamphlets, posters, caricatures, illustrations, manuscripts, political cartoons and more related to slavery, the abolition movement, free blacks and other aspects of the life of African Americans from 1770 to 1950, with most of the collection from around 1865 [added 12/27/06]

Stereotyping Native Americans - a set of images and comments from the California Museum of Photography [added 12/27/06]

Images of Native Americans - From the Bancroft Library, this collection contains portrayals of Native Americans by the Europeans, advertising posters and more. [added 2/1/03]

"Suffering Under a Great Injustice" - Here you will find a large collection of Ansel Adams' photographs of Japanese-American internment at Manzanar - perhaps you can incorporate some of these images into a lecture or send students to analyze them in some manner [added 6/6/02]

Racist Obama bumper sticker - [added 6/26/12]

Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia - collection of racist cartoons, images and videos



Class Assignments



Pop Culture Assignment - created by Jenn Goetz from Centre College



Advocacy Project - created by Laura Ramsey at Bridgewater State University

Decolonizing social cognition

"Walking in another person's shoes" - An Action Teaching Award Honorable Mention: "For four weeks of class, students research the social justice issues their assigned character is facing, examining the historical and current context of the issues from multiple perspectives of power, cultural values, worldviews, sociopolitical dimensions, historical and ecological factors, socioeconomic status, racism, sexism, discrimination, stereotypes, privilege, conflicts, emotions, and ambiguity, all of which help construct a sense of self and identity. The research is used as a backdrop for the next phase of the assignment: the class presentation." [7/1/15]
Taking social psychology to the streets - "For this assignment, students can work alone or with a partner. They venture out into a community or metropolitan area near our college and become amateur street photographers. Students are asked to find five people, couples, or families whom they consider to be different than themselves or somehow outside the norm in society and who are willing to allow the students to take their picture and ask them a few questions. Students then join a Facebook group I created for the assignment and post the photos for the class to see. Like the Humans of New York project, they also add a caption to each photograph that best represents the interaction. Most often this caption is in the form of a quote from the subject of the photograph." This assignment, by Kristel Gallagher, was an honorable mention for the 2014 Social Psychology Network Action Teaching Award. [7/1/15]

Building Cross-Cultural Understanding Through Facebook - This project also won honorable mention for the 2013 Social Psychology Network Action Teaching Award. "This assignment uses social media to give students a chance to have meaningful cross-cultural interactions while learning about social psychology and ways to promote international dialogue, peace, and social justice. In this particular case, a Facebook page was co-developed by psychology classes in Egypt and the United States, and student groups in each class were asked to design a program that would improve relationships between Muslims and non-Muslim Westerners by using what they had learned about (1) the causes of prejudice and intergroup conflict, and (2) methods for reducing prejudice and making peace. After students designed their programs, they discussed them in class and then posted their ideas to the Facebook page for comments by students from the other country. As a result of this cross-cultural exchange, students often reported that they had not only learned about psychology of prejudice reduction but that their own prejudices had been reduced. As one student summed up the experience in her final Facebook post: 'thank you all for teaching so much in such a short period of time! I learned a lot about you and about myself from this project, and I know that the lessons I learned will stay with me for the rest of my life.'" [added 8/19/13]

Make your own IAT - FreeIAT lets you or your students create your Implicit Association Tests. [added 4/01/13]

A public education project on intersecting identities - Kim Case won an honorable mention in the 2012 Social Psychology Network Action Teaching Award competition with this entry: "Intersectionality is a feminist sociological theory that describes how biological, social, and cultural categories such as gender, race, class, ability, and other dimensions of identity interact to create social inequality. In this action teaching assignment, known as the "Intersections of Identity Education Project," students learn about intersectionality and carry out a public education project that teaches others about the ways that intersectionality can lead to social injustice. These projects, which are developed with feedback from community members whose identity they concern, include videos, documentaries, games, workshops, handouts, and other educational materials. Once students have developed these materials and activities, they use them in a public education project and then write a paper connecting their project to course readings, theory, and concepts. The paper also includes feedback from the community and a discussion of what the student learned." [added 6/16/12]

Real world analysis project - From Jennifer Richeson's Stereotyping and Prejudice course: "One of the goals of the course is to encourage students to apply the information learned in the class to important real-world issues. Consequently, a major component of the course involves the analysis of a real-world event and/or issue for which stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination may be relevant. Specifically, you will identify a topic to investigate from real world intergroup events, issues, and/or conflicts for which stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination may be operating. You will be able to choose any issue that you’d like, but you should, however, pick a topic that is meaningful to you, as you will be thinking and writing about it for the entire quarter! Specific issues that might be interesting to consider include, lay beliefs about what is and what is not prejudice, issues underlying support for or opposition to gay marriage, and public policy positions (i.e. attitudes) regarding poverty/homelessness, although there are many other options. You might also choose to examine intergroup tension among racial, gender, age, and/or religious group memberships at Northwestern. I must approve the topic (by e-mail) no later than 5pm on Wednesday January 23. Three course requirements will stem from the Analysis Project: 1) two analysis reports and 2) an in-class presentation, and 3) your final research proposal paper. [added 1/14/12]

Teaching social categorization - A Teaching of Psychology article: "This article details a multi-modal active learning experience to help students understand elements of social categorization. Each student in a group dynamics course observed two groups in conflict and identified examples of in-group bias, double-standard thinking, out-group homogeneity bias, law of small numbers, group attribution error, ultimate attribution error, and moral exclusion. Students individually wrote papers detailing their observations. The author then carefully structured students' small and large group discussions so students could present and compare their findings orally. Pretest–posttest analyses revealed that students had a more complete and accurate understanding of social categorization after participating in this assignment than they did after merely reading the relevant textbook chapter." [added 1/14/12]

The Voices Project - Here is an honorable mention for the Social Psychology Network Action Teaching Award. "In the Voices Project, pairs of students are assigned to interview someone from a group toward which they have a negative attitude or a lack of familiarity (e.g., racial minorities, Muslims, people with AIDS). Students meet with their interviewee three times and focus particular attention on experiences that their interviewee has had being a target of prejudice, stereotyping, or discrimination. In addition, students attend a cultural event related to the group they're seeking to understand. Based on these experiences, students then write a five-page autobiography of their interviewee from the first-person perspective. The project concludes by weaving the "voices" in these autobiographies into readable monologues that are performed in an event open to members of the campus and local community, thereby promoting greater intergroup awareness, perspective taking, and empathy beyond the classroom." [added 4/2/11]

Reducing prejudice -- a cultural learning experience - Here is an honorable mention for the Social Psychology Network Action Teaching Award. "This action teaching assignment involves three parts. First, students learn about implicit biases and take an Implicit Association Test that they believe might reveal a personal bias related to race or ethnicity. Second, students challenge their bias by immersing themselves in a cultural setting that allows for interaction with members of the group they have chosen (for example, someone with a bias concerning Asians might attend a Chinese New Year celebration, or someone with a bias concerning Arab Muslims might attend Islamic mosque services). Third, students interview one or two members of the selected group, asking questions such as: (a) "What does it mean to you to be a member of this cultural or ethnic group?" (b) "Have you been personally affected by prejudice and/or racism?" and (c) "What suggestions can you offer to encourage mutual respect among various cultural groups?" At the end of this experience, students submit a report summarizing what they learned and how they'll continue to challenge their biases and learn about different groups in the future." [added 4/2/11]

Two project assignments on immigration - Here is the full issue of Teaching Tolerance from whence the projects came. I don't know if I used it properly, but I like the word whence! [added 4/2/11]

Mass violence and reconciliation in Rwanda and its neighbors - an elaborate and interesting field research study [added 8/1/10]

Observation Task - In Nyla Branscombe's Stereotyping and Prejudice Across Cultures course, students complete a very interesting data gathering task. It is carefully designed so that it is not very difficult for students to conduct, yet provides a good opportunity for students to consider research issues as well as "how social categorization affect nonverbal behavior." [added 11/24/07]

Using Lessons from the Holocaust to Reduce Bullying - The final honorable mention from the 2007 Action Teaching Award was given to Ruth T. Hannon for her creative assignment in her Perspectives of the Holocaust course. From the proposal: "Over the next several class sessions, our college students meet in small groups to design projects to be taken to the middle school. Their task is to use lessons from the Holocaust to teach about the dynamics of prejudice, hate speech, and bullying close to home. For example, our students have spoken about the psychology of conformity and depicted how conformity operates in bullying situations. Middle school students come to see the power of conformity in such situations, and they learn ways to resist being drawn into bullying behaviors. Lively discussions follow and, oftentimes, middle schoolers share stories about bullying they've witnessed." [added 7/7/07]


Create a meme - created by Ellen Whitehead at Ball State

Prejudice log assignment - Tim Lawson, Tracy McDonough, and James Bodle published an article in the latest issue of Teaching of Psychology describing a Prejudice Log Assignment that leads to an in-class Prejudice Reduction Exercise. Tim has graciously permitted me to share the assignment, exercise, and materials with you here. [added 12/4/10]

Designing/Conducting Research

Paper Assignments

Social identity or hate on the Web - A good assignment from Nyla Branscombe's Stereotyping course -- Students choose between 1) writing about 3 or 4 of their most important identities or 2) analyzing 4 different hate sites on the Web. [added 11/24/07]

Ambivalent Sexism Inventory - Scott Plous has created an assignment around this online activity. [added 1/13/06]

Variety of assignments: Stereotyping and Prejudice course - Sue Frantz requires a variety of interesting assignments in her seminar including a journal, group project, e-mail discussion, and interview of someone 50 years or older. [added 7/1/04]


"Put Yourself in a Minority Situation" - Students are asked to put themselves in a minority situation and write a one-page summary of their experience. From Elizabeth Pinel. [added 2/1/03]

Social Identity Assignment - students answer questions about groups they belong to or identify with - from Michael Schmitt



Stigma from ignorance - A survey found that nearly half of the 12-18 year olds could not name a single mental disorder. [added 3/25/09]

Symbolic Threat

Symbolic threat - another example of claiming that same-sex marriage will undermine the U.S. [added 1/15/12]

Symbolic threat - Utah state senator Chris Buttars said of "the radical gay movement" that "they're probably the greatest threat to America going down I know of." [3/29/09]

Realistic Threat

Realistic threats - Prejudice and discrimination are sometimes initiated because of the perception of realistic threat, that is, the the perception that another group is threatening a group's financial or physical security.  This report details an increased number of attacks against Asian Americans, often linked to the idea that Asians are the source of the coronavirus.  Here is a link to more information on this increase of racism. PANDEMIC

Realistic threat - The perception of realistic threat, the belief that another group represents a threat to your group's physical or financial security, was clearly evident in the 1980s in the U.S. in attitudes and behaviors towards Asians, and Japanese in particular.  Japan was becoming a global economic power which was seen as a threat to the United States.  That led to prejudice and discrimination, as seen in this example.

Immigrants - Video courtesy of U.S. Republican Senators [added 7/5/09]


Institutional Discrimination

Institutional racism - "But a 2021 study by the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, more popularly known as Freddie Mac, showed that real estate appraisers are twice as likely to undervalue minority-owned property relative to contract price for which the home sells, than they are to undervalue homes owned by white Americans."

Institutional racism - "Banks still discriminate against Black business owners."

Institutional racism - A report from an independent monitoring team found that in Chicago "The citywide average chance of being stopped in a year was 1 in 8 for Black people, 1 in 25 for Latino people, and 1 in 73 for White people," according to a data analysis by David Abrams, a University of Pennsylvania professor. "Citywide disparities in pat down and search rates were even greater for those years, when about 1 in 25 Black people were patted down annually, compared to 1 in 86 Latino people and 1 in 475 White people. For searches, the rates were 1 in 27 for Black people, 1 in 99 for Latino people, and 1 in 420 for White people."

Systemic racism

Systemic racism - Why are Black Americans still dying of kidney disease at higher rates than other groups?

Systemic racism - historic Black cemeteries

Systemic racism in law enforcement in the U.S.

“Texas governor signs law to stop teachers from talking about racism” - The irony of a state denying the existence of systemic racism by banning the discussion of it

Institutional racism - a report on the history of U.S. newspapers publishing stories of hate

Housing discrimination - "Black family hangs photos of white neighbors and appraisal comes back nearly $100,000 higher." “In the Black community, we know selling your home means take down your pictures. Don't be present."

 Housing discrimination - "Black homeowner had a white friend stand in for third appraisal.  Her home value doubled."

Housing discrimination - a good review of past and current housing discrimination in the U.S.

Study: Cops treat White people better - an interesting analysis of police bodycams

Institutional discrimination - "Police are cutting ties with domestic violence programs that support Black Lives Matter."

Institutional discrimination - Black police officers are disciplined significantly and disproportionately more than White officers, according to a report from researchers at Indiana University.

Institutional discrimination - Here's a good case study of the practice of redlining in Louisville, Kentucky.

Institutional discrimination - “Neighborhoods with more people of color pay higher energy bills.”

Institutional discrimination - “Race looms ever larger as death sentences decline.”

Institutional discrimination - “Police officer awarded $20 million after being told to ‘tone down’ his ‘gayness.’”

Institutional discrimination - “Black Missouri drivers 91% more likely to be stopped, state Attorney General finds.”

Institutional discrimination - The New York Times is writing obituaries in a series entitled “Overlooked.”  “These remarkable black men and women never received obituaries in The New York Times — until now. We’re adding their stories to our project about prominent people whose deaths were not reported by the newspaper.

“The FBI spends a lot of time spying on Black Americans”

Institutional discrimination - “Police officer awarded $20 million after being told to ‘tone down’ his ‘gayness.’”

Institutional racism - “Black defendants get longer sentences from Republican-appointed judges, study finds.”

Institutional racism - As some media outlets are tracking the lies of President Trump, others are tracking evidence of racism, past and present.

Institutional discrimination - An Arizona lawmaker "is proposing a far-reaching law in Arizona, House Bill 2120, banning virtually every college event, activity or course which discusses social justice, skin privilege, or racial equality."

Institutional discrimination - Feds find San Francisco Police Department has institutional bias against minorities.

Institutional racism - Very interesting history of how the introduction of the interstate system into Charlotte, NC helped contribute to what we are seeing today.

Institutional racism - Proposed Texas textbook describes Mexicans Americans as wanting to destroy this society.

Institutional discrimination -  "The education system is rigged against low-income students, even in kindergarten," according to this report from the National Center for Education Statistics.

Institutional racism -  "Man sentenced to die after 'expert' testified that Black people are dangerous."

Institutional inclusion - "Target [U.S. store chain] says transgender people can use bathroom that aligns with their identity."

Institutional discrimination - "School official said a shirt was 'an open invitation to sex.'" What did the shirt say?  "No one knows I'm a lesbian."

Institutional discrimination - "Tennessee bill would prohibit public schools from teaching about Islam."

Institutional discrimination/suppressing dissenting views - Good essay describing how the U.K. government favors government-consistent views and disfavors and suppresses views inconsistent with government positions [6/30/15]

Institutional discrimination - A pastor stops a funeral in progress when he realizes the deceased was a lesbian. [6/30/15]

Institutional prejudice - Italian mayor wants to ban same-sex kissing in public. [6/30/15]

Institutional racism - "Bank took much better care of foreclosed homes in white neighborhoods." [6/30/15]

Institutional racism - A U.S. congressman acknowledges that race plays a role in immigration reform debate. [added 6/29/15]

Institutional discrimination - "The people who face the greatest threat from potential toxic chemical disasters are disproportionately low-income, black, or Latino, according to a study released Thursday by three environmental groups." [6/30/15]

Institutional racism - "Russian newspaper editor fined for quoting gay person in article."  Well, actually he was fined for quoting a gay person in the wrong way.  The article did not present homosexuality as deviant.  That violates a new law.  As one official said, "Such a claim violates the laws of logic. By presenting it to readers who are minors, the author leads them into error about the normalcy of homosexuality. Following the logic of the author, you could recognize the existence of maniacs, serial killers, etc. as normal and even effective." [added 6/29/15]

Institutional discrimination - The Daily Show has an amusing take on Arizona's banning of the teaching of ethnic studies in schools. [added 6/20/12]

Institutional racism - "Tennessee tea party 'demands' that references to slavery be removed from history textbooks." [added 6/18/12]

Institutional discrimination - Report finds racial discrimination in upkeep of foreclosed properties. [added 6/20/12]

Institutional discrimination - A private Islamic school was denied admission to a Texas association of private and parochial schools. [added 6/18/12]

Institutional prejudice - "FBI teaches agents: 'Mainstream' Muslims are 'violent, radical.'" [added 1/15/12]

Institutional racism - "Three men hanged for gay sex in Iran" [added 1/15/12]

Institutional racism - Apparently, the FBI has been teaching its agents "that 'main stream' [sic] American Muslims are likely to be terrorist sympathizers; that the Prophet Mohammed was a 'cult leader'; and that the Islamic practice of giving charity is no more than a funding mechanism for combat. At the Bureau’s training ground in Quantico, Virginia, agents are shown a chart contending that the more 'devout' a Muslim, the more likely he is to be 'violent.' Those destructive tendencies cannot be reversed, an FBI instructional presentation adds: 'Any war against non-believers is justified' under Muslim law; a 'moderating process cannot happen if the Koran continues to be regarded as the unalterable word of Allah.'" Here is an article about the types of reading material found in the F.B.I. library. [added 1/15/12]

Institutional racism - "A Pennsylvania school district has decided not to stage a Tony Award-winning musical about a Muslim street poet after community members complained about the timing so soon after the 10th anniversary of the Sept. 11 attacks. The Richland School District in Johnstown had planned to stage 'Kismet' in February, but Superintendent Thomas Fleming said Tuesday that it was scrapped to avoid controversy." [added 1/15/12]

Institutional discrimination - in the mortgage industry [added 1/15/12]

Institutional discrimination - Church banned interracial couples from becoming members. That ban has since been rescinded. [added 1/15/12]

Institutional racism - This is a nice essay on the origins of Memorial Day and how the roles of Blacks in developing that day were almost erased from history. [added 8/17/11]

Institutional support - Article: "Facebook apologizes for censoring gay kiss photo." [added 8/15/11]

Institutional racism - Possible systemic discrimination in the teaching profession [1/15/10]

Institutional racism - "Black Americans are 10 times more likely to be imprisoned for illegal drug offenses than whites, even though both groups use and sell drugs at the same rate, according to a study released on Tuesday." [added 12/26/07]

Language/institutional support - "The City Council on Wednesday approved a resolution urging New Yorkers tostop using the n-word, joining a nationwide movement seeking to reject the notion that the racial slur can be redefined and reclaimed." [added 7/8/07]

Racism - and Meghan Markle

Religious justification - “A Mississippi event hall has come under fire after an employee cited ‘our Christian race’ and ‘our Christian belief’ as reasons why it refused to allow a wedding for an interracial couple.”

Overt racism from police official - very disturbing

Extreme racist language - See video of altercation between citizens in public.

Overgeneralizing - News Corp CEO Rupert Murdoch claims "all Muslims 'must be held responsible' until Jihadism is eliminated." [6/30/15]

Stereotypes are overgeneralizations - Anti-Islam ads coming to New York City buses [6/30/15]

Modern racism


Overgeneralizing: "Kill them all" -  A U.S. congressman said this about "radicalized Muslims" after a recent terror attack in London.

SWB: Shopping While Black - A lawsuit alleges that employees at this store were instructed by the manager to "say 'D410' in a casual manner when a Black person entered the store."  D410 is the store's code for a black shirt.

Stereotyping - "Police officer body-slams Black teacher, then tells her Black people have more 'violent tendencies."

 Overgeneralizing stereotypes - On a plane, "A man ripped off a Muslim woman's hajib, screamed 'This is America!'"

Stereotyping - "UC Berkeley student questioned, refused service after speaking Arabic on flight."

"A new study has found that economic scarcity makes people more likely to see African-Americans as “blacker” and more stereotypical."

"Lawyers systematically rate Black judges less favorably, study finds." [6/30/15]

Stereotyping - Read about the Saudi man who was tackled and interviewed by the police for running away from the Boston Marathon explosions. [added 8/19/13]

Stereotyping - Former governor Mike Huckabee offers a song portraying those living in the Middle East in stereotypic and derogatory terms. [added 12/17/12]

Racial stereotypes in sports - Yes, I am required by law to mention "Linsanity" at least once in this issue. [added 6/18/12]

Playing to caricatures - This political ad from Pete Hoekstra perpetuates a number of stereotypes of Chinese people and culture. The actress who played the woman in the ad has apologized for her role in it. [added 6/18/12]

Stereotyping - Robert Novak says that Barack Obama is not a "stereotype African-American." So, who is, Bob? [added 4/4/08]

Influence of family - video of a mom modeling anti-Islam bias in front of children

Language - very interesting description of how variations of “go back to your country” are used

Language -  "Obama signs bill removing 'Oriental' and 'Negro' from federal laws."

"Americans would rather do business with White people than Black people."

"Study finds strong evidence for discriminatory intent behind voter id laws."

"Study suggests it's more dangerous for Black pedestrians to cross the street."

Cultural influences - "Game mega-company Nintendo is finding itself in some hot water after the company refused to let players pair off in same-sex couples in a game called 'Tomodachi Life.' The game is intended to recreate everyday life, including creating virtual families." [6/30/15]

Language - Is the term "homosexual" now a pejorative for gays and lesbians? [6/30/15]

Language - U. S. Congressman Paul Ryan uses code words like "inner city" and "culture problem" to find blame for poverty. [6/30/15]

Overt racism? - Joe the Plumber [added 2/20/14]

"Shopping while Black"- Like driving while Black, walking while Black, ... [added 2/20/14]

Judge tells Sikh to "remove that rag" - [added 2/20/14]

Stereotype of Arabs/Muslims - Although I'd rather not admit it, I do have a slight prejudice toward Arabs, but not to the extent of pure hatred. It all happened with one vivid experience at the YMCA. I had been warned by a co-worker to keep my eye out for a man with a 6-year-old daughter because he was known to be abusive towards his daughter by making her swim laps in the pool for hours on end without a break. The first time I had laid eyes on this man,who was wearing a turban on his head and sported a small beard, my brain fired off a series of stereotypes. Uh oh, he's a Muslim, which means he's probably dangerous, not friendly, and rude was my initial thought. It didn't even occur to me that this was the man my co-worker warned me about. Rather, it was my stereotype that warned me to stay away because he posed a threat to my physical well-being. From that moment on, I relied on confirming evidence to maintain my stereotype that he was dangerous. Every little thing he did wrong proved to me that he was, in fact, a threat. In fact, one day, when he screamed at me for asking him if he wanted an ID card (he was using his wife's), I actually felt scared he would hit me, especially since I heard it had happened before to a lifeguard. Because of him and recent world events, I developed a slight prejudice towards Arabs. Now, whenever a man who looks like an Arab walks in to use the facility, I try to avoid eye contact and as much interaction as possible due to fear. In fact, apparently I've been told that I've even moved away from the desk whenever I saw him, which I didn't even know I was doing. This example demonstrated several things. First, it illustrated the vividness effect: I never remembered the good behaviors of this man, just the bad ones because they happened to be the most vivid. Second, it showed confirmation bias: I only looked for negative encounters with this man to maintain my stereotypes. Third, it also depicted priming: Encountering this man with his turban and beard triggered negative stereotypes, which resulted in fear and the behavior of slowly walking away. Fourth, the stereotypes I formed were done so in part of automaticity: My brain took in information about this man, but my unconscious processed it and spat out the negative stereotypes I had about Arabs and Muslims. [added 12/17/12]

Racist symbolism - "Texan lynches invisible Obama." [added 12/17/12]

Victim-blaming - Geraldo Rivera blames the hoodie, in part, for Trayvon Martin's death. [added 6/18/12]

Use of language - More Linsanity: When Jeremy Lin, the Chinese-American who burst on the professional basketball scene lately, finally lost a game, ESPN used the headline "A chink in the armor." [added 6/18/12]

Anti-Arab/Muslim propaganda - very disturbing cartoon in the New York Post [added 6/18/12]

Modern racism - Gingrich: "Most of the Asians, some Latinos, but not many African Americans understand entrepreneurship." [added 6/18/12]

Racial profiling - "A black Milwaukee driver is seven times as likely to be stopped by city police as a white resident driver, a Journal Sentinel analysis of nearly 46,000 traffic stops has found." [added 1/15/12]

Stereotyping - "Brown-skinned lady sits next to two Indian men on plane, gets strip-searched and detained for ‘suspicious activity.’" [added 1/15/12]

Increasing tolerance and acceptance - "Four and a half months ago, Rick Welts, then the president and CEO of the NBA’s Phoenix Suns, became the first openly gay senior executive in American professional sports." [added 1/15/12]

Stereotypes in the media - "Nivea apologizes for controversial ad in Esquire." [added 1/15/12]

Blacks are lazy - according to Oklahoma state representative Sally Kern [added 8/15/11]

Minorities should accept superiority of majority/group in power - Bryan Fisher of the American Family Association: "It's arresting to think of how different the history of the American settlement and expansion could have been if the other indigenous peoples had followed Pocahonta's example, Fischer wrote in his Feb. 15 post. She not only recognized the superiority of the God whom the colonists worshipped over the gods of her native people, she recognized the superiority (not the perfection) of their culture and adopted its patterns and language as her own. In other words, she both converted and assimilated. Had the other indigenous people followed her example, their assimilation into what became America could have been seamless and bloodless. Sadly, it was not to be. [4/9/11]

Marginalizing minorities - Tea partiers in Tennessee presented legislators with a variety of demands. "Regarding education, the material they distributed said, Neglect and outright ill will have distorted the teaching of the history and character of the United States. We seek to compel the teaching of students in Tennessee the truth regarding the history of our nation and the nature of its government....The material calls for lawmakers to amend state laws governing school curriculums, and for textbook selection criteria to say that 'No portrayal of minority experience in the history which actually occurred shall obscure the experience or contributions of the Founding Fathers, or the majority of citizens, including those who reached positions of leadership.'" [4/9/11]

Overt racism - Perhaps the most infamous case over the summer here in the U.S. was of these Black kids turned away at a private swim club. [added 1/13/10]

Racism through humor - This was sent via email by a staff member of a state politician. [added 7/5/09]

Categorization and association - "Amazon lists Obama Halloween mask as a 'terrorist costume'" [3/26/09]

Justifying inequalities - "Right-wing hate group blames immigrants for increasing greenhouse emissions"
[added 9/20/08]

In our language - For "normal to darker skin" says this body lotion -- and "normal" is ....? [added 9/20/08]

Use of code words for racial prejudice - a very disturbing column [added 6/3/08]

Anti-semitism - story and recollections of Holocaust survivor Rena Finder, including a brief video [added 12/23/07]

Realistic and symbolic threat - good example of how some view illegal immigrants as both a threat to resources (realistic threat) and to core values and beliefs (symbolic threat) [added 7/19/07]

Irrational fear - Watch TV commentator Lou Dobbs being challenged on his false claim that the invasion of illegal immigrants is linked to an explosion in leprosy. [added 7/19/07]

Here is a humorous video on this from The Daily Show. [added 7/19/07]

Language maintains/reinforces prejudice - In this case, gender stereotypes [added 4/3/13]

Racial prejudice in the U.S. Congress - an editorial about the comments made by a U.S. congressman about the first Muslim-American member of Congress [added 7/6/07]

The power of the symbols - Read a commentary about a town in Nevada that "makes it illegal to fly a foreign (read: Mexican) flag." [12/27/06]

Your name matters - Press release of an interesting study in which "the study’s authors sent more than 1,100 identically worded e-mail inquiries to Los Angeles-area landlords asking about vacant apartments advertised online. The inquiries were signed randomly, with an equal number signed Patrick McDougall, Tyrell Jackson or Said Al-Rahman. The fictional McDougall received positive or encouraging replies from 89 percent of the landlords, while Al-Rahman was encouraged by 66 percent of the landlords. Only 56 percent, however, responded positively to Jackson." [added 7/5/06]

Scottsboro "boys" - a brief description of the famous case of the Scottsboro "boys" in 1931, and a link to the PBS show on the subject [added 3/23/04]

Racial Profiling


Informal racial profiling -  "NFL star visits gym he wants to buy, employees call the cops on him"

Racial profiling - of NBA player John Henson

Racial profiling - "In Connecticut, African-Americans are twice as likely as Whites to have their cars searched by cops." [6/30/15]

Shopping While Black - [6/30/15]

Racial profiling - "In 2011, NYPD made more stops of young black men than the total number of young black men in New York." [added 6/20/12]

Racial profiling - A report from the ACLU details racial profiling in the Illinois State Police on traffic stops. [added 8/17/11]

Racial profiling - Indian actor in U.S. to promote film on racial profiling of Muslims is racially profiled at airport. [added 1/13/10]

Racial profiling/stereotyping - Documents from the Maryland State Police include statements such as "Hispanics generally do not hold their alcohol well. They tend to drink too much and this leads to fights." [added 12/12/07]

Racial profiling - "An architect of Iraqi descent has said he was forced to remove a T-shirt that bore the words 'We will not be silent' before boarding a flight at New York." [added 12/27/06]


Vivid distinctions - When your group is more visually distinct you are more likely to be a target of prejudice and discrimination.  This case in point:  Hasidic Jews.

The persecutors claim to be persecuted

Ethnic violence - more anti-Islam attacks during Ramadan [added 12/16/12]

Religious sources - "Activists in Kentucky are planning a peaceful response after two gay men with developmental and intellectual disabilities were kicked out of a public pool. A maintenance technician reportedly cited the Bible while telling the two men they couldn't swim at The Pavilion, a government-funded recreational facility in Hazard, Kentucky. "We own this place and can tell you to leave if we want to," the couple was told, according to the Kentucky Equality Foundation. "The Pavilion staff immediately entered the pool area and asked my clients and their staff to leave the Pavilion," Mending Hearts Executive Director Shirlyn Perkins recalled. "My staff asked The Pavilion staff why they were being asked to leave, and they were informed that 'gay people' weren't allowed to swim there." [added 8/17/11]

Stereotypes as overgeneralizations - attacking the appointment of a Muslim judge [4/9/11]

Outgroup homogeneity effect - They all look alike, they all think alike, they all act alike. Columnist Cal Thomas puts forth the view shared by many that Muslims are taking over. They all have the same goal. Here is another example from Glenn Beck. Here is an essay from Glenn Greenwald illustrating the same point. [added 9/25/10]

Did "cult-like" group commit suicide? - You may have heard this story in the news in which "a group of 13 Salvadoran immigrants missing in southern California amid fears that they planned a cult-like mass suicide have been found alive, unhurt and upset to find they were the subjects of an extensive search." Why was there an assumption that they might be out somewhere committing mass suicide? Is that what we think all "cult-like" groups are capable of? Thinking about? Are we overestimating the few vivid instances in which that has occurred? What makes this group "cult-like" anyway? Some video included. [added 9/25/10]

Before I married and assumed a Jewish name, I did not realize that the prejudice would be so strong. We are resented almost everywhere we go. It began with my friends. Shortly after we were married, they began to fall away. Even my children from my previous marriage feel uncomfortable around my husband, just simply because he's Jewish. My former in-laws act as if I died. They never ask the children about me and quickly change the subject if one of them mentions my name. Then there's the clerks in stores when they see my name (obviously Jewish) on my credit cards. We're all supposed to be rich, spoiled princesses. Our husbands got rich through unscrupulous business practices. Sometimes they can be very surly. The churches are not much better. They see us as Christ killers and the word "Jew" definitely bears a negative connotation. It's either hurled from the pulpit or whispered in private. I say "we" rather loosely because I'm a Christian and attend church regularly. I'm also a member of a synagogue, that I attend infrequently with my husband. I've heard a lot of snide remarks and I've learned a lot about how these people cope. They're not perfect, but I don't know anyone who is. There's a lot of truth in that old saying about walking in someone's shoes before you judge them. I've been doing it for several years now and I have quite a different perspective. Unfortunately, as long as stereotypes are perpetuated from generation to generation, few people will ever view life through a Jew's eyes and the prejudice will continue.


Sexism - Missouri pastor tells wives to be "trophy wives" for their husbands.

Who's that in the bathroom? - The first link is to a story and video of a man who followed a woman into the women's bathroom because he thought she might be a man.  Here is a video of police forcing a lesbian to leave the women's bathroom because she can't prove she is a woman.

Sexism in Hollywood - "Maggie Gyllenhaal, 37, told she was 'too old' to play the love interest of a 55-year-old man." [6/30/15]

Institutional discrimination - "After 260 years, golf club admits women members." [6/30/15]

Language maintains/reinforces prejudice - in this case, gender stereotypes [added 8/19/13]

Institutional discrimination - "Girls given equal rights to British throne under law changes." [added 1/15/12]

Institutional supports - Video and story of gay highschooler attacked by classmate [added 1/15/12]

Stereotypes - Sam Sommers presents an interesting summary and commentary of research finding a negative stereotype about breastfeeding. [added 8/17/11]

Minorities should know their place - Some of the objections to allowing gays and lesbians in the military revolve around the fear that they will "flaunt" their sexual orientation. Those in the majority/power find it easy to tell others not to do as they do. Here is another example. [added 6/20/10]

Social inequalities - "Eight months after being raped, a 16-year-old at Khargor of Kasba upazila in Brahmanbaria had to receive 101 lashes as 'punishment.'" [added 2/6/10]

New gay stereotype - a Tom the Dancing Bug cartoon [added 12/26/07]

Use of offensive language - Blogger makes the argument that the term "homosexual" is degrading and offensive. [added 11/17/07]

Gender bias in the workplace - A fascinating letter apparently from Walt Disney Productions in 1938 rejecting a female applicant for a "young man's" job [added 7/19/07]

Language: "That's so gay" - "After Rice got a warning and a notation in her file, her parents sued, claiming officials at Santa Rosa's Maria Carrillo High violated their daughter's 1st Amendment rights when they disciplined her for uttering a phrase that 'enjoys widespread currency in youth culture,' according to court documents." [added 7/8/07]

Homophobia - You can listen to ex-NBA basketball player Tim Hardaway's statement about how uncomfortable he would have been to have a gay teammate, and how he hates gays. It is about two minutes into this on-air discussion with ex-professional basketball player John Amaechi about his new book in which he reveals that he is gay. Here is an article about Hardaway's comments. [added 7/7/07]

Homophobia - Did you see the Snickers ad during the 2007 Super Bowl? Did you think it was homophobic? Read about the controversy here. [added 7/7/07]

Gays flee Iraq - "Evidence shows increase in number of executions as homosexuals plead for asylum in Britain." [added 12/22/06]

Homosexuality in Iraq - story of a 14-year old boy who was apparently killed by Iraqi police for being a homosexual [added 7/5/06]

Ingroup Bias

Demonizing others - Antifa has become the go-to "group" to accuse as the source of the current unrest by some.

Ingroup bias - “People who don’t like Trump ‘deserve’ to be called scum,” is how White House press secretary Stephanie Grisham defended President Trump’s comments about some of his Republican critics.

Dehumanization - Immigrant children detained by the U.S. are denied flu vaccines.

Dehumanization - an article on why it matters when President Trump calls people “animals”

Dehumanization - Why is it okay to kill millions of humans “over there”?

Ingroup bias - 5-year-old girl refused to color a picture of a Kansas Jayhawk in school. She was a diehard Kansas State fan. [added 6/18/12]

Exposure to outgroup - A Muslim reality show, "All-American Muslim," will be appearing on TLC beginning November 13, 2011. Will it help reduce conflict or prejudice or discrimination? Who will watch it? Some research possibilities there for you or your students. [added 1/15/12]

Ingroup/outgroup - What did Georgia Senator Saxby Chambliss mean when he said "There has always been a rush to the polls by African-Americans early. It has also got our side energized, they see what is happening." [added 3/29/09]

Ingroup bias - When I was in Grammar School, it was the biggest deal to be part of the popular group; that’s all I ever wanted. Finally, after years of trying I made it in this distinctive group. This is the perfect example for the Ingroup/Outgroup. In order to be in our group, which by the way we called ourselves the “perfect 10” because there were ten of us, you had to be and act a certain way. Your hair had to be done a certain way, it had to be a certain color, and on various days we all planned to wear matching items. One particular day I remember was a Friday, we called it “crazy pants day.” We all had to wear tight animal print pants and a black top. Everyone wanted to be a part of this group. If you weren’t in it, we were making fun of you, whether it was how you looked, who you hung out with, or just for who you were. We were awful little girls. I remember one day, the day we wore the crazy pants, a few teachers overheard what we were planning and planned to wear matching outfits that same Friday. It’s quite odd looking back and realizing just how big of an impact we had even on adults. By no means am I saying this was a good thing. There are many days where I wish I could take it all back. Why do we have to have these groups, that make others just feel terrible? What was it that gave this group I was in all the power? Even though I was a very mean little girl, I believe if I hadn’t have had experiences like this I wouldn’t be who I am today. Finally I left the “Perfect 10” because I couldn’t take making fun of others for no apparent reason, and now I don’t really judge anybody without getting to know them. [added 4/16/08]

Ingroup bias - An excellent example (image) from Carmen Lebherz of Switzerland: "I attach a picture of the German tabloid "BILD" with the headline "We Are Pope" that amused our team (some are German, some Swiss) quite a bit after Ratzinger became Benedict XVI. It's a pun on statements such as "we are soccer world champion", "we" standing for the whole nation. We thought it a perfect example of ingroup behavior, maybe even Cialdini's Basking in Reflected Glory (there's a twist: the Germans didn't like Ratzinger at all before he become pope)." [added 7/5/06]
Unequal status and socialization - Winnifred Louis passed along this example from Australia: "How hostility to asylum seekers (refugee claimaints) is formed - the context is that Australia has implemented harsh strategies of pre-emptive detention, a policy seen by some as inhumane and violating Australia's human rights obligations, yet supported by most Australians initially because of negative stereotypes about 'queue jumpers' and economic migrants masquerading as refugees. Most students have never met a refugee yet have strong views on the subject - so it's a good example of how people learn attitudes at second hand - from whom, one can ask?" [added 7/5/06]

A faculty member passed along this example experienced at a social psychology conference: "But what I wanted to share and receive comment on pertains to something I heard at the airport Sunday morning. Two graduate students were complaining that the Sat. night Jam Session was poorly attended and speculated it was because the "big names" were at a private party for the "Ivy Leaguers." One of the students had a friend who attended this party, and apparently it is quite formal, with some men in tuxes and women in formal dresses. What interested me the most was that this party was apparently "hush hush," with the location only announced at the last minute so that no one from an "inferior" school could "crash" it. Which leads to my actual question, is there a social hierarchy among social psychologists? Is there an "ingroup" that serves/works to maintain the elite and protect the status quo? What do others think? Any personal experiences, in general, at this party, etc." Any comments? [added 7/5/06]

The best example of Ingroup Bias deals with something that took place years ago. In fifth grade, a few girlfriends and I established The Bra Club. This club was exclusive to those girls who had already received their first bra. We planned all sorts of recess activities for our members. It was amazing (looking back) how quickly we all identified with the group. The boundaries setup extremely fast. You were in or out no -- in between. We in the bra club began to see those without a bra as something less than us. We also attributed non-related things, like saying something stupid to not having a bra. This illusion of causation became quite a habit. "Look she tripped. Oh, that's cause she doesn't have a bra." Stereotypes were also set up within the group. We associated the non-bras to things such as unintelligent, strange, clumsy, etc. At that time, the bra club also fell victim to false consensus. We thought that everybody thought that having a bra was the thing that made the world spin! Needless to say, my chapter of the bra club is now defunct. I'm sure somewhere the bra club exists and they are victimizing that poor non-bra, outgroup as we did!

I went to an afternoon meeting with dinner after. When we arrived, name tags were given out. Some people had green dots by their names, but some had red dots. No one could really figure out why one had any particular color over the other. When we finally sat down to dinner it became clear that the dot signified your meal choice (pre-selected). It was interesting how the 10 tables of people (12 per table) had literally grouped themselves by color code. For instance our table had only one green tag meaning that person had ordered prime rib rather than orange roughy. Before all were served and knew the color reasons, one person at our table even joked to Larry calling him our "token green," so obviously we somehow gave ourselves some identity via the codes. It was also interesting that as dinner went on most of us finally had to admit that we were just conforming to the perceived norm of "healthy eating" with the fish and Larry's prime rib really did look much better to us. We had not chosen what we wanted but what we thought we should want to eat at a company function.

The other ingroup I belong to is a group of secretaries. There are only four of us on the third floor so we are pretty close, at least in our opinions about the managers. There are 25 of them. If the coffee fund or candy fund turns up short of cash, it's because one of those cheap managers didn't contribute their fair share. They are all insensitive jerks! We, on the other land, are the long-suffering secretaries!

The group-serving bias - Despite overwhelming dislike of politicians in Washington, there has always been a group-serving bias such that MY representative/senator is okay, but the rest of those bums are terrible. Now, the majority of Americans don't even like their own incumbent. [added 12/5/10]


Reducing discrimination - Women in Saudi Arabia are to be given the right to vote and to run for office. [added 1/15/12]

Overt discrimination - At Mississippi middle school, only Whites can run for president. [added 9/25/10]

Dehumanization - Along with denying soap, toothpaste, and beds to children, these are examples of what becomes easy for people who dehumanize others.

Dehumanizing groups - South Carolina Lt. Governor compares parents of children on free or reduced lunches to stray animals. Here is a link to a Daily Show video in which Jon Stewart takes him to task. [added 2/6/10]

Dehumanization [added 7/15/07]

Unequal treatment - "Police ignore serial killings in Delhi slum, exposing unequal justice for India's poor" [added 7/6/07]

Just-world Phenomenon

Just world beliefs - Texas mayor, in commenting on his citizens' request for government help with the current disaster there tells them it is up to them to fix it.  The strong will survive and the weak will perish.  He resigned shortly afterwards.

Just-world beliefs/rationalize inequality - The mayor of Temecula, California believes that “homeless people panhandling on the off ramps are homeless by choice....They have rejected all forms of help and have chosen instead to play on the sympathy of generous residents.” [6/30/15]

Just world beliefs - "Herman Cain On Occupy Wall Street: If You Don't Have A Job And You're Not Rich, Blame Yourself" [added 1/15/12]

Just world phenomenon - Radio show host Bill Cunningham said "You know, people are poor in America, Steve, not because they lack money; they're poor because they lack values, morals, and ethics. And if government can't teach and instill that, we're wasting our time simply giving poor people money." Earlier in the show, Cunningham had stated that "unlike many countries in the world, Steve, we have fat poor people. We don't have skinny poor people. Ours are fat and flatulent." [3/26/09]

The just-world phenomenon - A study from Compassion International found that "thirty-nine percent of the people polled agreed strongly or somewhat with the statement: 'You have more sympathy for people who have cancer than you do for people who have HIV or AIDS because you feel most of those with HIV/AIDS got the disease as a result of their decisions or lifestyles.'" [added 12/29/06]


Assimilation - Mayor in Maine says "I don't care what color you are, when you come into the country, you have to accept our culture. Don't try to insert your culture into ours." [added 12/17/12]

Assimilationist view - Change your name so it sounds more like ours. Here is another example of the belief that immigrants should change their name to fit into society. [added 7/5/09]

Reducing Prejudice

The book touched on reducing racial prejudice through social contact. This brought me back to my high school days. In 1965, the Catholic schools made a stab at integration in St. Louis where I lived. The all-black high school on the north side of town was changed from co-ed to all boys. The all-white high school on the south side was changed from co-ed to all girls. The plan was to bus all the black girls south and all the white boys north. (This was in line with the stereotype that boys could handle themselves better in a rough neighborhood than girls. Evidently many white mothers did not share this stereotype and simply removed their sons from the Catholic school system and put them into the public school close by.) Many attempts were made by the nuns at my now all-girl school to get the black girls and white girls to intermix. The girls were paired off by opposite race as "co-sisters." On retreats girls of opposite race were bunked together. However, none of this forced social contact really worked. The girls still separated by race for lunches, social events, etc. The ingroup/outgroup bias was clearly distinctive here.

Topic Resources


Racial/Ethnic Prejudice

Racial Profiling
Native American/Aboriginal

Measuring Prejudice
Gender-based Prejudice
Sexual Orientation-based Prejudice
Disability/Disadvantaged-based Prejudice
Age-based Prejudice
Reducing Prejudice
Other Resources (including stereotype threat)










"Understanding Prejudice" - excellent site from Scott Plous and others that has grown rapidly in its short existence - lots of good resources and links to prejudice-related topics [added 7/23/03]


Measuring Prejudice

Does the Implicit Association Test (IAT) have construct validity? - not according to this review

Measuring implicit attitudes - These researchers describe a newer method for trying to capture your unconscious feelings or beliefs.

What does the public think of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) - The IAT is celebrating its 20th anniversary.  Here is some research looking at the public’s perception of it and its results.

“Two decades of measuring implicit associations”  (IAT) - The first article provides a nice overview of the tool and some of what we have learned.  This link is to an article about one of its co-creators – Mahzarin Banaji.  This link is to an article describing the research of psychologists who have attempted to reduce bias in the real world.

Is the IAT up to the job? - This article, reviewing some research, suggests it is not a reliable enough tool.

A very interesting measure of dehumanization - Perhaps you can even use this sliding scale with your students.

Another method for identifying implicit biases/stereotypes? - "Instead of scanning their brains, they tracked their hand movements. They flashed the photographs on a screen, and instructed the volunteers to move a mouse rapidly toward one of two adjectives—for example, “aggressive” and “caring”—in opposite corners of the screen. The psychologists tracked the computer mouse movements to see how quickly and directly they categorized each face by stereotypical traits. The idea here is that the hands have a mind of their own, in the sense that movements reflect the mind’s hesitation and conflict. The results were fascinating. An instantaneous stereotype would be a straight line from the starting point to one of the two adjectives—male, therefore aggressive, no hesitation. Nobody did that. Instead the movements appear as curves, suggesting some hesitation and deliberation in each judgment." [added 1/18/10]

Measuring racial discrimination - This entire book is freely available online. [added 7/06/07]


Racial/Ethnic Prejudice

Racial Profiling

"Traffic stops and race: Police conduct may bend to local biases" - "Both papers reveal that the greater the racial prejudice against Black people is in a county, the more often state troopers tend to stop Black drivers relative to White drivers."

"Is it possible to rid police officers of bias?" - a very good review of recent events and research on the topic

"Police prejudice is not what you think" - an interesting study comparing the attitudes of newer police and the general public

Pokemoning while Black - Interesting blog entry on some of the differences for minorities playing Pokemon Go

Racial profiling by police in New York City - article about a report documenting unjustified stops by police that disproportionately targeted minorities [added 12/19/10]

Arizona's new immigration law - This article is from the Teaching Tolerance site which says that "Arizona legalizes racial profiling." [added 7/14/10]

Whom should we screen at airports? - "The U.S. government is refining its terror-screening policy to focus on specific terror threats and not travelers' nationalities. The new policy replaces a security requirement put in place after the attempted bombing of a jetliner en route to Detroit on Christmas Day that singled out people from 14 countries that have been home to terrorists." Which is better?
[added 7/14/10]

Detecting racial bias in police stops - This article describes a statistical technique for identifying potentially problematic police officers for racial profiling. [added 1/18/10]

Analysis of racial profiling in NYPD - [added 12/16/07]

Racial profiling report - A study from the U.S. Justice Department found "Black, Hispanic and white drivers are equally likely to be pulled over by police, but blacks and Hispanics are much more likely to be searched and arrested." [added 7/16/07]

Racial profiling - "In a paper called 'Racial Profiling,' published in 'Philosophy and Public Affairs' in 2004, Richard Zeckhauser and I offer some reflections on moral issues pertaining to the use of race in police tactics. This paper has attracted a considerable amount of criticism. The present paper has been prepared for a conference session on racial profiling and responds to two published papers critical of our arguments. The goal of this paper is to defend the central arguments in the earlier Risse and Zeckhauser paper." [added 12/31/06]

Informal racial profiling? - story of how passengers in the UK refused to board a plane until two Asian men possibly speaking Arabic were removed from the plane [added 12/26/06]

"Racially biased policing: A principled response" - a (2005) report from the Police Executive Research Forum [added 1/14/06]

Racial profiling data collection - The Institute on Race and Justice at Northeastern University has created an informative site on racial profiling. Contents include reports on efforts to collect racial profiling data, reports on current events related to racial profiling, reports on initiatives aimed at reducing racial profiling, reports on related legislation and case law and more. [added 7/23/03]

"Arrest the Racism: Racial Profiling in America" - articles and resources on racial profiling from the ACLU [added 11/7/02]



“Uncovering the roots of discrimination toward immigrants” - from research conducted in Germany

“I am a migrant” - a new website includes first-person narratives from more than 1000 immigrants/emigrants to and from a variety of countries – developed by the United Nations.

Growth mindset and acceptance of immigrants - People with a growth mindset, who believe people can change, are more willing to accept resettling of refugees in their country than those with a fixed mindset.

Bias against immigrants with non-anglicized names - If you are from China or the Middle East, you might be safer in America if your name is Dan or Alex than Jiang or Ahmed.

“8 lessons from psychology that explain Trump’s caravan fearmongering”

Having a “foreign”-sounding name in America - This woman born in a Sikh family describes her experience with the name of Sahaj.  As our student bodies become more diverse I’m sure more and more of our students could relate to some aspect of her experience.

Do more immigrants equal more acceptance? - Yes.  David Myers describes research in the U.S. and Germany supporting this idea.  Intergroup contact is still one of the most potent methods for reducing prejudice and discrimination.

"How and why we target Muslims, immigrants" - an essay reviewing some research

"Where are you from?" - thoughts about what it means to ask someone that question

"Hating refugees is pretty much as American as apple pie" - a nice review of a few historical examples

Fear of Syrian refugees brings out troubling overgeneralizations - For example, U.S. presidential candidate Jeb Bush has suggested that refugees be screened by their religion and their last name.

"Newest immigrants assimilating as fast as previous ones" - good article reviewing extensive recent report by the National Academies of Science

Nation of immigrants doesn't like (non-English speaking) immigrants - Or, at least they don't like America the Beautiful sung in anything but English. [7/1/15]

10 myths about immigration - [added 6/5/11]

Immigrant women in the food industry - a report from the Southern Poverty Law Center [added 12/19/10]

Arizona's new immigration law - This article is from the Teaching Tolerance site which says that "Arizona legalizes racial profiling." Here is a story about a disturbing event that occurred a few days before the law was passed. [added 7/14/10]

Immigration debate in the classroom - more resources for teachers on this issue [added 7/6/06]

Characteristics of "unauthorized migrant population in the U.S." - a report from the Pew Hispanic Center [added 7/6/06]


Place, opportunity, and inequality - Here is another good essay on the topic.

Racial disparities in the health care system - an interview with Louis Penner

Are U.S. corporations biased against white people? - Yes, according to 13 Republican Attorneys General. Here is a link to an article about a recent poll finding that most U.S. Republicans think racism against whites is greater than racism towards Blacks. Here is an article which reviews some research on this question.

"The racist history of our gun laws"

Race and gender bias on the TV show Survivor

"People are less likely to challenge racism from older people"

Anti-white bias - from Elon Musk

"Prejudiced views linked to dislike of diverse Star Wars characters" - correlational

Tracking attacks on CRT - The UCLA School of Law Critical Race Studies Program began an initiative to track attacks on Critical Race Theory (CRT).

"Does 'racist' mean 'racially prejudiced'?" - Try this question on with your students!

"When do White people support anti-racist messages?"

Accent discrimination in hiring

"Branding racism" - A sociologist talks about how even racism can be branded.

Stereotypes around race and vegetarianism - Cry-face

Testing the Marley hypothesis - "According to the Marley hypothesis, a notion inspired by the lyrics of Bob Marley, people who lack knowledge about America's racist past fail to appreciate the lingering effects of racism today. One possibility, then, is that Democrats know more about the history of racism, and this helps them see racism in the present." Everyone should watch Ken Burns and colleagues' series The U.S. and the Holocaust at If I weren't retired (which I am), and I was teaching my Stereotype and Prejudice seminar, I would show my students this entire show.

The mythology of racial progress - an interesting interview with social psychologist Jennifer Richeson

“Why the APA’s apology for promoting White supremacy falls short” - an opinion essay from members of the Association of Black Psychologists

NYPD say hate crimes rose 100% in 2020; Anti-Asian crime up 361%

“It is far better to be born rich and white than smart and poor in America” - according to a report from the Georgetown Center on Education and the Workforce

“Racial and ethnic disparity in state prisons” - a report from The Sentencing Project

More on the missing White woman syndrome

FDNY training manual states women and minorities hinder team-building

Cross-ethnic exposure in childhood predicts political behavior 70 years later, study finds

The tattoo penalty - Although tattoos have become more common and popular, this research suggests that they still can negatively impact work outcomes such as hiring and salary.

Microaggressions - New special issue of Perspectives on Psychological Science focuses on updated research and theory on microaggressions.  The issue is freely available until October 31.  There is also a podcast on the topic at the first link.  Here is a link to the journal articles in the special issue.

Whom do people of color root for in the Olympics? - Whom did you root for in the Olympics, if you watched?  " But for many people of color, the Games are also a way to show solidarity — not around nations — but around race and ethnicity. To root for the diaspora is to acknowledge all the ways people of color have been affected by white supremacy — and to celebrate and cheer on the athletes who are able to break through those barriers."

"Who can talk about systemic inequality in the American classroom?"

How can diversity training work? - Psychologist Mona Sue Weissmark suggests it can if it incorporates scientific reasoning.  She explains how in this essay.

Resources on racism, bias, and diversity - gathered by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology

"Makers of Dove Soap will drop the word 'normal' from beauty products"

"How labeling books as 'diverse' reinforces White supremacy" - an interesting issue librarians are debating"

"Covid-19 and racial disparities in health"

Racial disparities in mass incarceration drives economic inequality

Anti-racist Resource Repository - from Arizona State University

"Meta-analysis confirms that multicultural ideology is associated with less racial bias"

"Researchers assume White Americans are more representative of humankind than other groups"

Resources on racism, bias, and diversity - from SPSP

Structural racism and police violence - a good set of resources from Sage Publishing including in-class activities

Policing and law enforcement

A few bad apples? - One piece of evidence that suggests that racism in law enforcement is not just the product of a few bad apples is the _expression_ of racist attitudes and beliefs by members of law enforcement in online forums.  That is by no means meant to suggest that the majority of of the police are racist, but a significant fraction appear to participate on these sites.  Here is further discussion and evidence of systemic racism from David Myers.

Research on racism - a series of articles from APS

Incidents of xenophobia and racism during the pandemic - PANDEMIC

I’m not racist, but… - A list of phrases that people express to claim that they are not racist, but which may reveal the opposite – Can your students think of similar phrases for other types of prejudice?

The Fashion and Race Database Project - from the Parsons School of Design

“Students view the same behaviors they’ve engaged in as racist when … - … someone else does them.”   Clever study.

“Biracial Americans face unique stereotypes” - “New research suggests that whites tend to view biracial Americans as attractive misfits.”

“Oregon bill cracks down on racially motivated 911 calls” - You may have heard those stories of a White person calling the police on “suspicious” behavior of a minority, usually Black. Along with a few municipalities which have passed such laws, Oregon would be the first U.S. state to do so.

“Can algorithms reduce racial bias rather than embed it?” - Algorithms used in apps and other forms of technology can unintentionally cement in racial bias in decisions about housing and other human services.  This article considers research that suggests that such algorithms might be intentionally designed to reduce bias.  Here is an article describing research on how Facebook’s own ad algorithm is a “race and gender stereotyping machine.”

“Hate up, prejudice down?” - David Myers reviews some recent research on prevailing American views and behaviors.

“The least politically prejudiced place in America” - an interesting analysis of one community and what led to its tolerance

“Americans are becoming less racist and homophobic” - But obesity has become even more stigmatized.

“The browning of America” - a good article about how the changing demographics in America are affecting its politics.

“Race, identity, and the British Royal Family” - It’s really about what it means to be bi-racial or of mixed race, like the new Duchess of Sussex.

A response to racism from the Swedish World Cup team -

Unequal application of the law - a story in the New York Times about how Blacks and Hispanics are much more likely to face marijuana changes in New York City

“People voted for Trump because they were anxious, not poor” - anxious, according to this study, because dominant groups felt threatened by change.

  National Geographic:  “Our coverage was racist” - National Geographic invited a researcher to analyze its content since it began in 1888.

Psychologists begin to build a profile of alt-right supporters

  Racial misappropriation - interesting essay on the topic, and timely for the upcoming Super Bowl

Poverty and segregation continues in U.S. schools

Are we less tolerant of mistakes by minorities? - Here’s an example from advertising.

Segregation leads to racist voting

Inter-race anxiety can be contagious

How white nationalism has entered the mainstream in the U.S. and Austria - This is a detailed analysis of the role of certain media sources and individuals who were significant contributors to its rise in America.  Here is an article about a far right party gaining power in Austria.

My cereal is racist

 "The psychology of taking a knee" - interesting discussion around the recent protests in sports

"I was a racist cop" - a powerful essay from a retired police officer and forensic investigator

"Institutional racism is clearly Trump's goal" - The Arizona Republic published an editorial about President Trump's pardon of sheriff Joe Arpaio in which it argues that Trump is elevating institutional racism above racial justice.

In new poll, about one-third of Americans oppose interracial marriage - quite a few other troubling findings

The first White President - interesting essay on why this author considers Trump as the first White Presiden

Research on racism - some featured articles on the topic from the Association for Psychological Science

Wealthy communities "seceding" from school districts - apparently for racial reasons in many cases, in this newer phenomenon

"White people show race bias when judging deception" - However, when Whites are making such judgments explicitly or publicly they apparently over-correct for their assumed bias and label Blacks as more truthful than Whites

99% of students handcuffed in school were Black or LatinX - by the NYPD

"The costs of racial 'color blindness'"

"People assume sexists are also racist and vice versa"

Do racial attitudes guide welfare preference? - Surprisingly, this question had not been previously tested experimentally.  This article describes some very recent research looking at the question. 

Institutional discrimination - This essay suggests that we might be misusing this important term.

"The real reason White people say 'All lives matter'" - a good essay on the topic

Trump unleashes White resentment for threat to identity - Symbolic threat can often be more powerful than realistic threat.

"When the majority becomes the minority" - The face of America is changing.  How will Whites handle no longer being the majority?  So far, it hasn't been pretty.  This article looks at research in America and Australia.

"Where we lives affects our bias against mixed-race individuals" - "Whites living in areas where they are less exposed to people of other races have a harder time categorizing mixed-race individuals than do Whites with greater interracial exposure, a condition that is associated with greater prejudice against mixed-race individuals, a new experimental study shows."

How different groups view racism in the U.S. - The article reviews some data from a Pew Research Center report.

Charges of racism and bigotry on college campuses - There have been a lot of stories recently about acts of bigotry, charges of suppression of free _expression_, and more on college campuses.  This particular blog addresses a response by an African-American professor at Harvard to having black tape placed over his picture.  A response to his response is also included.

How Trump is breathing life into white supremacy movement - good article on the topic

"The vast, hidden community of racial hatred in America" - a good review of some existing hate groups

Multiracial Americans - a good report from The Pew Research Center on the growing number of mixed-race individuals in America

"Institutional racism by the numbers" - [added 7/14/15]

"White privilege, quantified" - "In their experiment, Mujcic and Frijters enlisted 29 volunteers from different racial and ethnic backgrounds to board public buses, tell the drivers that they lacked the roughly $3.50 needed to ride, and say that they needed to get to a stop about a mile away. They were then asked to record whether the driver let them stay onboard. (They were also told to note the time of day and the weather conditions, which the researchers figured could engender compassion among the bus drivers.)  In all, the experiment yielded data on more than 1,500 encounters between volunteers and drivers. Nearly two-thirds of the volunteers’ pleas were successful, but the rate at which they were granted differed greatly across ethnicities. White participants were given a lot more leeway than black ones: 72 percent of white subjects were allowed to stay onboard, while only 36 percent of black ones were. The rate for South Asian subjects was around 50 percent, and for East Asians it was 73 percent." [added 7/13/15]

"The discipline gap: Race in the classroom" - Really fascinating and disturbing studies: "Here’s how they studied this idea. Since students are most commonly sent to the principal’s office for minor infractions like class disruption and insubordination, Eberhardt and Okonofua decided to study the influence of race on teachers’ responses to such minor misbehavior. They recruited experienced K-12 teachers from around the country, and showed them the school records of students who had violated school rules twice. In some cases, the teachers learned that the student’s name was Darnell or Deshawn, while in others they student was named Greg or Jake. These stereotypical black and white names were meant to suggest the students’ race. The teachers read about the students’ two infractions, and after each one they answered some questions: How severe was the student’s behavior? How irritated do you feel by the student? How severely should he be punished? How likely is it that the student is 'a troublemaker?' The findings were clear and troubling. When the student was white, the teachers felt no more troubled by the second incident than they were by the first. But if the student in question was black, the second infraction made a difference; the teachers felt more troubled by the second infraction, even though it was not serious. What’s more, teachers were much more likely to label black students as troublemakers, and—most disturbing—teachers thought that the black students (but not the white students) should be disciplined more severely following a second infraction." [added 7/13/15]

"Police misconduct as a social problem" - [7/2/15]

"15 charts that prove we're far from post-racial" - In the U.S. [7/1/15]

Segregation increasing in the southern U.S. - [7/1/15]

Which U.S. state has the most segregated schools? - Segregated not only by race but also by income -- which can be a two-barreled blow to these students [7/1/15]

What will happen when America becomes increasingly less White? - Good article looking at research testing this question [7/1/15]

Italy's racist soccer thugs - a good report looking into this unpleasant subculture [added 2/20/14]

"150 years of racism: Attitudes in the American South" - "A new paper by Avidit Acharya, Matthew Blackwell, and Maya Sen has discovered that the proportion of enslaved residents in 1860 — 153 years ago — predicts race-related beliefs today." [added 2/20/14]

The racial dot map - "Created by Dustin Cable at the University of Virginia's Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service, the Racial Dot Map provides "an accessible visualization of geographic distribution, population density, and racial diversity of the American people in every neighborhood in the entire country." As such, it displays over 308 million dots, color-coded by race, for each person residing in the United States at the time of the 2010 Census. Visitors can zoom in and out around the map to glean more specific details on various patterns. The What am I looking at? section provides a great way to learn more about the basic functions of the map and how it can be used in a range of settings." [added 2/20/14]

"Federal judge accused of making racial comments" - [added 8/19/13]

"Race and anger online" - Blog entry explores a recent violent event in the U.S. on which people commented online. Online forums are now providing an easily available public forum for expressing prejudice. [added 8/19/13]

Institute of Race Relations - The Institute provides essays, research, and other educational resources, particularly for Europe. [added 1/1/13]

Whites believe they are more frequent victims of racism than Blacks - "Both whites and blacks agree that anti-black racism has decreased over the last 60 years, according to the study. However, whites believe that anti-white racism has increased and is now a bigger problem than anti-black racism." H/T to Dennis Dew. [added 1/1/13]

How we deny the existence of racism - good essay from Marianne Mollmann from Amnesty International [added 1/1/13]

Racist babies? - "New research indicates that by the time they are 9 months old, babies are better able to recognize faces and emotional expressions of people who belong to the group they interact with most, than they are those of people who belong to another race." [added 7/1/12]

Minority students receive harsher punishments in schools - report from U.S. Department of Education [added 7/1/12]

Robot prejudice - "Shown identical pictures of the robot, half the students were told the machine was called Armin (a typical German first name) and that it had been developed in Germany. The other students were told the robot was called Arman (a typical Turkish name; Turks are the largest minority group in Germany) and that it had been developed at a Turkish university. The students evaluating the supposedly German-built robot Armin, rated it as warmer, of superior design, as having more of a mind, said they felt psychologically closer to it, and expressed more of a willingness to live with it, as compared with the students who evaluated the supposedly Turkish-built Arman. So not only did the German students show a basic preferential bias toward the robot that had a German name and provenance, they also saw it as more human." [added 7/1/12]

"Can you immunize yourself against prejudice?" - Blog entry about new research in which participants who were primed to be immunized against disease in some way were less likely to be racist. [added 1/29/12]

Why it's never about race - Sam Sommers follows up on an earlier blog entry on this topic by addressing the execution of Troy Davis in Georgia, USA. [added 1/29/12]

"Erasing Hate" - "For years, Bryon Widner thrived on hate as a violent skinhead – a razor-carrying "enforcer" who helped organize other racist gangs around the country. His hate was literally etched on his face in the form of tattoos with racist and violent themes. But with the help of the Southern Poverty Law Center – the nation's leading monitor of hate and extremist activity – Widner left the white power movement and endured nearly two years of excruciating laser treatments to remove the tell-tale tattoos so that he could start a new life with his wife and children. On Sunday night, his story will be told in "Erasing Hate," which airs at 9 p.m. EDT on MSNBC. The one-hour documentary recounts Widner's life within the white power movement, the decision that led him and his wife to leave it, and the procedures he received."

Beliefs in genetic human similarity affect likelihood of categorization - Researchers conducted some clever studies illustrating how one's belief in how genetically similar humans are is related to one's likelihood of categorization. Additionally, they asked the question, "If belief in genetic variation is correlated with people's tendency to categorise faces according to race, then what if people are educated about human genetic variation - might that change their proclivity for prejudice?" A subsequent study found just that -- an interesting possible route to reduce prejudice. [added 8/20/11]

"Why it's never about race" - Sam Sommers describes examples in which we often claim that although racism exists that is not what is happening in this case. [added 8/20/11]

Racial microaggressions - "Some racism is so subtle that neither victim nor perpetrator may entirely understand what is going on—which may be especially toxic for people of color." [added 8/20/11]

Are Whites racially oppressed? - [added 6/5/11]

Do NBA refs exhibit own race bias? - very interesting story about a study of NBA referees, how the NBA responded, and how the story and research evolved -- H/T to Harry Wallace [added 12/21/10]

Multiculturalism in Australia - a report on the controversy and policy around multiculturalism in Australia [added 12/19/10]

"Big racial gap in suspensions of middle school students" - a report from the Southern Poverty Law Center [added 10/23/10]

Stereotypes and peremptory challenges - "Rather than denying the existence of stereotyping or asking people to continually suppress a basic human instinct, there is a better way to help reduce demographic profiling in forbidden areas. The simple answer is to increase the time for voir dire and utilize jury questionnaires." [added 10/23/10]

"Victim race still central to death penalty" - "The odds of getting a death sentence for killing a white person is about three times higher than for killing an African American with the race of the defendant virtually irrelevant, according to a new study out of North Carolina that echoes earlier findings on capital punishment." [added 10/23/10]

Race salience and juries - This blog entry briefly describes some research from Sam Sommers and points to an article of his in which he points to some misconceptions in our understanding of race bias and juries. [added 10/23/10]

"The political incorrectness of political correctness" - This interesting essay by Sam Sommers could prompt some good debate in your classroom. [added 7/14/10]

In UK, call to ban race and gender info in CVs - [added 2/7/10]
Ease of processing affects prejudice? - "The researchers said their finding showed prejudice against migrants can partly be explained by the cognitive awkwardness of thinking about a person who lives in one place but hails from another." [added 2/7/10]

"Census figures challenge views of race and ethnicity" - [added 2/7/10]

Nonverbal communication of race bias on TV - This study finds that "Subtle patterns of nonverbal behavior that appear on popular television programs influence racial bias among viewers....Black characters elicit especially negative nonverbal responses, such as facial expressions and body language, from other characters, and viewers exhibit more racial bias after exposure to such negative responses, according to the Science paper." [added 1/18/10]

Racial bias in Britain's workplaces - "A government sting operation targeting hundreds of employers across Britain has uncovered widespread racial discrimination against workers with African and Asian names." [added 1/18/10]

Stereotypes and chefs - Do you watch the TV show Top Chef? Do you ever see any Black chefs, judges, etc.? Asian? [added 7/11/09]

"What is White Trash?" - [added 7/11/09]

Are all missing females white and attractive? - It might seem that way if you follow media accounts. Sam Sommers addresses this and related questions in his blog. Here is some similar analysis. [added 7/11/09]

"Obama is nudging views on race, a survey finds" - [added 7/11/09]

Racial microaggressions - The article describes what is meant by a microaggression. Here is a blog entry responding to the article. [4/1/09]

Does inducing empathy towards minority groups reduce prejudice? - As usual, it depends. If the participant anticipates then interacting with a minority group member his dislike actually increases. If he anticipates interacting with an ingroup member then prejudice is reduced. [4/1/09]

Slight hesitations in intergroup conversation may heighten racial tension - description of an interesting study [4/1/09]

"Race bigotry falling in Britain" - [4/1/09]

"The enduring challenge of concentrated poverty in America" - a report from the Brookings Institution [3/30/09]

Colorblindness - Another good blog from Sam Sommers -- I can't tell you how many games of Guess Who? I played with my kids many years ago. [3/29/09]

"The Nazi Olympics: Berlin 1936" - an exhibit from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum [6/20/08]

"Enough with the unusual names" - a satirical piece of the unique names given to minority children that many thought was serious [6/20/08]

Institutional racism in the U.S. - a report from the American Civil Liberties Union -- "Race and ethnicity in America: Turning a blind eye to injustice" [added 3/23/08]

Racism as subjectification - "This is the problem of subjectification - when people who are conceded to possess subject status are nevertheless treated as if they have no objective worth." [added 12/16/07]

"Hate crimes rose 8% in 2006" - Here is an article from Hatewatch which claims the number is seriously undercounted. [added 12/15/07]

"Race, ethnicity, and the criminal justice system" - "A new research brief released recently by the American Sociological Association, in its series on How Race and Ethnicity Matter, highlights data and research on racial and ethnic disparities in crime and the criminal justice system in the United States. Focusing on studies that span several decades, the brief demonstrates how research from the social and behavioral sciences serves as a resource to understand the relationship between race and the criminal justice system." Other reports in the series can be found at this site. [added 12/9/07]

"Metropolitan segregation" - This is an article published 50 years ago in Scientific American about "white flight." [added 11/17/07]

Minority enrollments at U.S. colleges and universities - a 2007 report from the American Council on Education [added 11/17/07]

"The persuasive appeal of stigma" - "Stigmatized minorities may have an advantage in persuading majority group members during some face-to-face interactions due to the greater self-presentational demands such interactions elicit. In contrast to models which predict greater persuasive impact of members of ingroups, White participants were more convinced by persuasive appeals delivered by a Black interaction partner than by a White interaction partner." [added 9/30/07]

"Voices of Civil Rights" - This site shares the firsthand accounts of many involved in the fight for civil rights. [added 8/05/07]

"Understanding race" - "Looking through the eyes of history, science and lived experience, the RACE Project explains differences among people and reveals the reality – and unreality – of race. The story of race is complex and may challenge how we think about race and human variation, about the differences and similarities among people." A project of the American Anthropological Association [added 7/8/07]

School segregation - "Lost learning, forgotten promises" from the Center for American Progress examines the consequences of school segregation, the consequences of integration, and the current status of both. [added 7/06/07]

"African American and Latino families face high rates of hardship" - a report from the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities -- three "hardships" are considered: Overcrowding, hunger or the risk of hunger, and lack of medical care. [added 12/31/06]

The Wonderlic test, stereotype threat and the law - "The Wonderlic is a twelve-minute, fifty-question exam designed to assess aptitude for learning a job and adapting to solve problems." It is given to many college football players prior to the National Football League draft. Sometimes it is viewed as an IQ test of prospective professional football players. This paper looks at whether stereotype threat is in play when players take the test, and it examines some of the legal implications of this process. [added 12/31/06]

"A brief history of race and the Supreme Court" - [added 12/31/06]

Cross-race relationships - an article and annotated bibliography that addresses actual relationships across races and not just contact between them, from The Center for the Development of Peace and Well-being [added 1/15/06]

Segregation and cancer risk - "Separate and unequal: Residential segregation and estimated cancer risks associated with ambient air toxics in U.S. metropolitan areas" is a report from The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. [added 1/11/06]

Indigenous Peoples Literature - extensive resources about indigenous peoples worldwide [added 1/9/06]

Ruling on segregation in prison - interesting story about the U.S. Supreme Court overturning California's policy of segregrating prisoners by race (2005) [added 6/17/05]

Days of Infamy: December 7 and 9/11 - comparison of two infamous days in American history -- hear the voices of people immediately following each event, and more [added 12/1/04]

"Brown@50: Fulfilling the promise" - resources related to the Brown v. Board of Education decision as part of a commemoration of its upcoming 50th anniversary, from Howard University School of Law [added 3/23/04]


"Race: The Power of an Illusion" - This is the companion website to PBS' TV series of the same name. It includes background readings on the origins and roles of race, a discussion guide, classroom activities (check out "For Teachers"), and other resources. [added 7/23/03]

"A Class Divided" - Frontline (PBS) rebroadcast its 1985 episode of the famous story of Jane Elliott, the 3rd grade teacher in rural Iowa, who in the late '60's began an exercise in her class in which she separated her white students into blue-eyed and brown-eyed kids to teach them lessons of discrimination. The entire episode can now be viewed online at this address. It begins with the fascinating original footage in Elliott's 3rd grade classroom and includes follow-up experiences since that time. The episode is broken into five segments online. I love when such material is made available online because I can pick certain clips to show in class or I can send students to view them outside of class. Nothing to put on reserve! [added 7/16/03]

"Changing America: Indicators of Social and Economic Well-being by Race and Hispanic Origin" - "This chart book documents current differences in well-being by race and Hispanic origin and describes how such differences have evolved over the past several decades. The book is designed to further one of the goals of the President's Initiative on Race: To educate Americans about the facts surrounding the issue of race in America." [added 7/16/03]

Segregation in U.S. Cities - Census Scope provides "charts, data, and rankings on segregation in cities and metropolitan areas" from the 2000 U.S. census [added 8/30/02]

"Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care" - an online, book-length report (2002) from the Institute of Medicine [added 6/6/02]

Find Hidden Bias - the Southern Poverty Law Center has put together an extensive website ( that includes this series of Implicit Association Tests revealing possible biases towards Arab Muslims, Asian Americans, body image and more - explore the entire site; a lot of interesting examples and material


The "benefits" of slavery? - Institutional racism: The state of Florida (again) attempted to downplay slavery by claiming that many slaves gained valuable benefits from it.

"Psychology's role in the criminalization of Blackness"

"Raising Black children to resist"

Can Black on Black violence be driven by racism? - That is a question this article tackles as it discusses the case of five Black police officers charged with the murder of a Black citizen in Memphis, Tennessee.

"Denial of structural racism linked to anti-Black prejudice" - "People who deny the existence of structural racism are more likely to exhibit anti-Black prejudice and less likely to show racial empathy or openness to diversity, according to research published by the American Psychological Association. However, there were no similar findings for people who claimed they ignore race, which was instead associated with greater openness to diversity, the study found."

"The lasting legacy of redlining" -

Whitewashing Black history - As some Whites in this country become afraid of losing power, efforts have increased to ignore and distort racial history. The same is happening with LGBTQ+ topics.

Black man convicted by jurors who deliberated in room with racist décor - And apparently there was a lot of it.  Priming, anyone?  Hat tip to Wendy Heath for passing this along.

Study: Cops treat White people better - an interesting analysis of police bodycams

The labels of Black and African American - “A new series of studies to be published by Psychological Science  show that White Americans associate the label 'Blacks' with being targets of racial bias more than the label 'African Americans.'”

"Not even past: Social vulnerability and the legacy of redlining" - "This site juxtaposes these maps [of redlining] from the 1930s with contemporary health disparities."

The 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre - This weekend is the 100-year anniversary of the terrible event.  The first link is to some history about it, including some multimedia.  Here is a link to a demonstration of what was destroyed in that attack, from the New York Times.

Prejudice: Now there's an app for DWB -- Driving while Black

"The state of Black women in corporate America" - a report from Lean in - an organization that "helps women achieve their ambitions and work to create an equal world"

"Protests over killings of Black people could erode racism" - An interview with psychologist James Jones

Don't understand the protests? - Kareem Abdul-Jabbar helps us understand them in this op-ed.  A good read for your students.

Unarmed young Black men are 13 times more likely to be shot by police

The red “summer” of 1919 - A disturbing history of the horrific year of lynching of African-Americans in 1919.  Here is part 2. Here is part 3.

“The FBI spends a lot of time spying on Black Americans”

“How watermelon’s reputation got tangled in racism” - Here's another article on its history

“Black conservatives attract White support when advocating against their in-group’s interests” - “ In the study, American participants read one of two editorials that were purportedly taken from a hypothetical conservative news site. One editorial advocated for privatizing Social Security, while the second argued that political correctness was stifling free speech about race. The researchers also included a picture of the purported author of the editorial — who was sometimes depicted as a white man while other times was depicted as a black man. Overall, a black conservative who argued that political correctness was bad because it made people afraid to offend minorities was significantly more well-liked compared to a white conservative who made the exact same argument. But this was not true when it came to the issue of Social Security. ‘ People really like black Republicans, especially the racially conservative ones. There is a special danger in black politicians who espouse racist rhetoric because it essentially ‘green lights’ the negative opinions of others,’ Leslie told PsyPost.”

Prejudice starts early - New research finds that prejudice against black males can be detected as early as age four.”

“The Negro Motorist Green Book” - A fascinating historical document and its modern makeover -- In 1936, Victor Hugo Green began publishing a guide to tell Black travelers where it was safe to stop for food, fuel, or overnight accommodations.

Black students with disabilities lose 77 more days to suspensions than their White counterparts

Why are Black students punished more often than White students? - Minnesota looks at this question.

Black men’s sentences 20% longer

NAACP warns Blacks against traveling on American Airlines - The organizations warns that flying American could subject African-Americans to "disrespectful, discriminatory or unsafe conditions."

  "Black Lives Matter and America's long history of resisting civil rights protesters" - An article in the Washington Post -- it includes some interesting polling data from the 1960's in America.

"Wage gap between Blacks and Whites is larger today than it was 40 years ago"

"Calling out White supremacy comes with consequences for Black folks" - As it always has.   This link is to an essay about a Pennsylvania fire chief tweeting that Pittsburgh Steelers' head coach, by allowing his team to stay in the locker room during the national anthem, had "just added himself to the list of no-good n*****s."

"Redlining never went away" - "New research shows that discriminatory lending holds down housing values, hurting black wealth accumulation."

Black soldiers are punished disproportionately in the U.S. military - according to a study from a military advocacy group Protect Our Defenders

"Study: Oakland police spoke less respectfully to Black people" - The disturbing anecdotes of Blacks, men and women, being shot by police are understandably concerning, and has ignited the Black Lives Matter movement.  But I think studies like this one give an even more revealing picture of what minorities face every day of their lives.  You can certainly talk about the shootings in your class, but I think all our students should discuss this study to understand the causes and consequences of modern racism.

Police: Blacks not wanted in suburban U.S. - Buzzfeed reports that "The result is a combustible mix: a white population anxious about its new black neighbors, and a white police force unprepared and ill-equipped to handle the thickening racial tensions."

"Poor Black children are much more likely to attend high-poverty schools than ... - poor White children.

"Black defendents punished harsher after a judge's favorite football team loses" - No kidding.  That is what this study found.

43% of U.S. Blacks don't believe we will ever have racial equality

Weapon bias shows up even when viewing a 5-year old

Bias against men with Black-sounding names - In this study men with Black-sounding names such as Jamal or DeShawn were expected to be physically larger, more violent, and more dangerous than men with more White-sounding names such as Wyatt, Garrett, or Connor.

Which is the most educated group in America? - Black women.   See the interesting stats.

"Ferguson police report: Most shocking parts" - The U.S. Department of Justice recently released its report on the Ferguson, Missouri Police Department and its municipal court system.  The second link is to the report itself. [added 7/13/15]

LeBron James: Protecting his sons from police misconduct - Here's what he tells his sons. [added 7/13/15]

Judge resurrects "nightmarish specter of lynchings in Mississippi" - A moving speech [added 7/13/15]

"The science of why cops shoot young Black men" - A look at some of the effects of implicit bias [added 7/13/15]

Young Blacks 21 times more likely to be shot dead by cops than White youth ... - a report from ProPublica [7/2/15]

... and Black youth are 16.3 times more likely to be arrested for truancy and curfew charges - from a report by the American Civil Liberties Union of Minneapolis [7/2/15]
"How the war on drugs damages black social mobility" - A report from the Brookings Institute [7/2/15]
"Media stumped on how to handle missing mixed-race woman" - Amusing Onion satire  -- the media often ignores missing children/people of color, but obsesses over missing white females -- so what to do with mixed-race? [7/2/15]

Another segregated prom - Here is video of the prom. [added 8/19/13]

South Africa has first Black "Idol" - Despite the fact that the majority of South Africa's population is Black, this is the first time in eight seasons that a Black contestant has won their version of American Idol. Read why. [added 1/1/13]

If you don't like Blacks, you don't like Obama's dog - Blog entry describes some interesting research that teased out racial animosity towards Barack Obama and how it affected attitudes towards other issues, including the President's dog. [added 7/1/12]

"Interracial poster sparks controversy in South Africa" - "The political ad created by the student wing of the Democratic Alliance party, shows a white man and a black woman embracing with the tagline 'In OUR future, you wouldn't look twice.'" [added 7/1/12]

The shooting of Trayvon Martin - How big is the Trayvon Martin story? It's got its own Wikipedia page. [added 6/29/12]

Affirmative action bake sale - "A Facebook post announcing plans by a UC Berkeley Republican group to sell baked goods priced according to race, gender and ethnicity - 'White/Caucasian' pastries for $2 and 'Black/African American' pastries for 75 cents, for example - has drawn outrage on campus....The campus Republicans, who expect to go forward with their 'Increase Diversity Bake Sale' on Tuesday, say the event is meant to mock an effort by the student government to drum up support for SB185, a bill to let the University of California and the California State University consider ethnicity in student admissions." [added 1/29/12]

Man should be given death penalty because Blacks are more dangerous - blog entry about a Texas death penalty case and the role of psychologists in the sentencing [added 1/29/12]

How much anti-White bias is there? - As part of a New York Times "Room for Debate" segment, Sam Sommers join several others in commenting on Sam and colleagues' research. As Sam notes, "Our recent research reveals that white and black Americans agree that bias against blacks was prevalent in the 1950’s and 1960’s. But while blacks see such racism as continuing, whites tend to see it as a problem that has been more or less “solved.” If anything, many whites now believe that it’s anti-white bias that’s on an upswing, to the point where it’s even more prevalent than anti-black bias — a sentiment not shared by blacks." These different viewpoints could provide a good starter for class discussion or a particular assignment. [added 8/20/11]

Rochester Black Freedom Struggle Online Project - a collection of oral histories, papers, and other exhibits primarily addressing the 1960's and 1970's in Rochester, NY [added 6/5/11]

Many more Blacks jailed (proportionately) in England and Wales than U.S. - That's a staggering thought. [added 12/19/10]

Variation of black/white doll test - CNN conducted a study on children from kindergarten through fourth grade examining their perceptions of lighter-skinned and darker-skinned children. "In the study, white children had an overwhelming bias toward white, and black children also had a bias toward white, but it was not nearly as strong as the bias shown by the white children." Find links to the actual study results and to video stories about it. [added 7/14/10]

Colorism and light-skinned Blacks - [added 3/7/10]

Ethnic cleansing in America? - "From the 1860s to the 1920s, towns across the U.S. violently expelled African American residents. Today, these communities remain virtually all white." [added 2/6/10]

Chris Rock's new documentary "Good Hair" - This looks to be a fascinating take on Black women and their pursuit of straight hair. This essay provides some good insights about it. [added 1/18/10]

"Barack wouldn't be president if he didn't marry a black woman" - And a couple other "things you're not allowed to say about the Obamas" - is it true? [4/1/09]

"The code of the street and African-American adolescent violence" - a report from the U.S. Department of Justice [4/1/09]

A fascinating case of possible juror bias - Sam Sommers, in his always interesting blog, Science of Small Talk, relates a fascinating tale: "In November of 2006, a Cape Cod jury returned a guilty verdict in the murder trial of Christopher McCowen. This was supposed to be the final chapter in a murder drama that had captured attention regionally and nationally. But within days of the verdict, three different jurors came forward with concerns about the jury's verdict as well as the process by which it was reached. These concerns would serve as the impetus for an extraordinarily rare legal hearing in which the jurors from the case were called back to the courthouse more than one year after the verdict. One-by-one, they would take the stand and answer questions about what had transpired in the jury room. Specifically, the hearing examined whether particular jurors had made racially biased statements during deliberations, and, if they had, whether such statements had influenced the trial's outcome."

At the end of the above blog entry click on "To be continued" to .... continue. Currently, there are three installments. A fourth and final one is promised. As you will read, Sam also appeared in court in this case as an expert witness. I love the first question he was asked as he describes it: "First question from Mr. O'Keefe during my cross-examination: "Doctor, do you mind if I ask you how old you are?" My reply: "Sure, as long as I can ask you the same question in return." That relates to my first question for Sam: Did you wear the glasses in court (as opposed to going sans glasses in your blog photo) to appear younger, more authoritative, or both?

Lots of possible uses for this well-told story in your course.

Does living in a more "prejudiced" area correspond to a Black's wages? - Interesting study that attempted to see if a correlation existed between the amount of prejudice in a region and the wage gap between Blacks and Whites [4/1/09]

"Black Americans in Congress" - More historical in nature, but you might find it interesting or useful [4/1/09]

The Obama effect - Fascinating research: Blacks performed significantly worse on a test of 20 GRE questions prior to Obama's election. Blacks performed equally well on the test after the inauguration. Elimination of stereotype threat? The first link is to a New York Times article about the study. [4/1/09]

Civil Rights Digital Library - This site from the University of Georgia Libraries provides a lot of articles, images, and videos from the civil rights era of the 1950s and 1960s. [3/29/09]

Too black or not black enough? - interesting blog entry about Obama's speech on race and related thoughts [added 4/25/08]

Kenya being redrawn by ethnicity - "Kenya used to be considered one of the most promising countries in Africa. Now it is in the throes of ethnically segregating itself. Ever since a deeply flawed election in December kicked off a wave of ethnic and political violence, hundreds of thousands of people have been violently driven from their homes and many are now resettling in ethnically homogenous zones. Luos have gone back to Luo land, Kikuyus to Kikuyu land, Kambas to Kamba land and Kisiis to Kisii land. Even some of the packed slums in the capital, Nairobi, have split along ethnic lines." [added 4/14/08]

Many U.S. Whites associate Blacks with apes - A series of studies found "Americans subconsciously associate blacks with apes." [added 4/14/08]

Watson's racist comments - Nobel Laureate James Watson apparently made some comments suggesting that those of African descent are less intellectually endowed. For example, "In the newspaper interview, he said there was no reason to think that races which had grown up in separate geographical locations should have evolved identically. He went on to say that although he hoped everyone was equal, 'people who have to deal with black employees find this not true.'" [added 12/9/07]

Observing discrimination taxing on the mind - Interesting study in which black and white participants observed a company's hiring decisions. When blacks observed subtle racism in the hiring process it later impaired their performance on a Stroop test, and more so than the observance of more blatant racism. Whites on the other hand were more impaired after observing the blatant racism. [added 12/9/07]

Jena 6 - I assume those of you in the U.S. have heard of the case of the Jena 6, the six black students in Jena, Louisiana accused of beating a white student. The first link takes you to a good, detailed overview of the incident and the subsequent controversy. If you want to show a brief news clip about such an event, you can search the video sections of news sites such as ABC or CNN. This link is to one of the many accompanying stories in which two nooses were found hanging from the back of a pickup truck. [added 11/17/07]

"Reducing the racial achievement gap: A social-psychological intervention" - This is a fascinating study from Cohen et al. in which a racial performance gap was significantly reduced through a 15-minute intervention at the beginning of a course. [added 7/6/07]

"I can instantly tell whether...blackdar" - an amusing article from the satirical online newspaper The Onion [added 12/31/06]

The effects of Brown vs. Board of Education - a research report from The Federal Reserve Board that "finds that dismissal of a court-ordered desegregation plan results in a gradual, moderate increase in racial segregation and an increase in black dropout rates and black private school attendance" [added 2/22/06]

Brazil's first black television channel - story (2005) from The Guardian [added 1/14/06]

"Looting" vs. "Finding" - By now, many of you, particularly in the U.S., have probably seen the photos and heard the debate about captions of "looting" applied to images of blacks in the Katrina aftermath and captions of "finding" or other less criminal description applied to whites. The first link above provides two sets of such images that have circulated quite widely. Includes some good possible rationale for the captions, including the rationale provided by the photographers. [added 1/9/06]

"Names, expectations and the Black-White test score gap" - Fascinating study comparing teacher expectations towards siblings whose names varied in the degree to which they were associated with low-socioeconomic status which was usually associated with race. For example, low-socioeconomic names by the author's measure included ones that had certain prefixes (e.g., lo, da), certain suffixes (e.g., isha or ious), included apostrophes (e.g., Da'Quan or Chlo'e), and scored at least 20 points in Scrabble (i.e., were long names with a number of unusual letters, e.g., Jazzmyn). [added 9/20/05]

"Slavery and the Making of America" - I enjoyed this 2005 show on PBS. Resources related to it, including slave narratives, can be found at this site. [added 6/17/05]

The Legacy of Blackface - "In a two-part report for The Tavis Smiley Show, producer Roy Hurst explores the roots of blackface minstrelry, and how the legacy of the act still haunts some forms of black popular entertainment today." Includes audio and images -- from NPR. [added 7/1/04]

"'I Will be Heard!': Abolitionism in America" - an historical site with lots of material from the Cornell University Library [added 11/11/03]

"The Least of My Brothers" - This freely available online short course on research ethics from the Poynter Center for the Study of Ethics and American Institutions at Indiana University-Bloomington describes the famous PHS Syphilis Study at Tuskegee. "From 1932 to 1972, 399 poor black sharecroppers in Macon County, Alabama were denied treatment for syphilis and deceived by physicians of the United States Public Health Service. As part of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, designed to document the natural history of the disease, these men were told that they were being treated for 'bad blood.' In fact, government officials went to extreme lengths to ensure that they received no therapy from any source. As reported by the New York Times on 26 July 1972, the Tuskegee Syphilis Study was revealed as 'the longest nontherapeutic experiment on human beings in medical history.'" [added 7/16/03]



"The ugly danger of scapegoating"

Scapegoating Asian-Americans throughout history - essay from George Takei

"Asian American hate: Exploring the intersection of race and gender" - an interesting essay

AAPI resources - For Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, Sage Journals is sharing these resources. 

Nearly 4,000 incidents of anti-Asian racism in the last year - a huge increase over the previous year

"India declares freedom of sexual orientation a fundamental right"

Heavier Asian-Americans are seen as more Americans - Apparently since the stereotypes are that Asians are thin and Americans are heavy then heavy Asian-Americans must be more American!

"South Koreans struggle with race" - [added 1/18/10]

Dispelling myths about Asian-Americans - A research brief from the Higher Education Research Institute at UCLA -- "In sum, the freshman trends examined in this report help to address several myths about the Asian American college student population. Th e examined trends do not support popular claims that Asian Americans are enjoying unprecedented, collective (or universal) academic success in U.S. higher education." [added 12/9/07]

Attitudes between citizens of neighboring Asian countries - A survey from the Pew Research Center - "There is a good deal of dislike, if not outright hostility, in how the publics of major Asian countries view their neighbors. The deepest divides exist between traditional rivals - roughly seven-in-ten Japanese express an unfavorable view of China and an equal number of Chinese dislike Japan. Similarly, most Indians have an unfavorable view of Pakistan and most Pakistanis hold negative views about India." [added 12/30/06]

Asian Pacific Americans on prime-time TV - "This pioneer study, Asian Pacific Americans in Prime Time: Lights, Camera and Little Action, systematically investigates the portrayal of APIAs on prime time television. Because series’ regulars characters are the most desirable roles for television actors and the types of characters that audiences identify and connect with most, this study analyzes the regular characters for each series, drawing on the networks’ own promotional web pages as well as actual recorded episodes. In addition to comparisons of characters by race and gender, this study takes a unique approach by comparing roles portrayed by monoracial versus multiracial APIA actors. This sampling procedure captures a variety of characters (APIA, ethnically ambiguous, and white) and allows for a more open interpretation of racial/ethnic categories in terms of representations of the APIA community on prime time television." [added 9/20/05]

The Fred Korematsu Story (Japanese internment) - "Fred Korematsu was probably never more American than when he resisted, and then challenged in court, the forced internment of Japanese-Americans during World War II. Korematsu lost his landmark Supreme Court case in 1944, but never his indignation and resolve. OF CIVIL WRONGS AND RIGHTS is the untold history of the 40-year legal fight to vindicate Korematsu — one that finally turned a civil injustice into a civil rights victory." This site accompanies a P.O.V. show that aired in 2001. [added 8/30/05]


Australian Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission - a considerable number of good resources here, general and Australian-specific, under topics such as racial discrimination and sex discrimination [added 7/16/03]



"How racism created America's Chinatowns" - [7/2/15]

"Becoming American: The Chinese Experience" - a website accompanying the program from a PBS Bill Moyers' special -- read personal stories and eyewitness accounts [added 7/21/03]



American Latino heritage - "Since the age of exploration, Latino peoples have played a profoundly important role in American history, contributing to and shaping the rich heritage of the United States in many ways for some 500 years. Explore their stories and their legacy by visiting the units of the National Park System and places listed in the National Register of Historic Places, most of which are designated as National Historic Landmarks, throughout the nation featured in this itinerary." [added 1/1/13]

"Majority of Latinos now favor gay marriage" - quite a jump from just six years ago [added 1/1/13]

The increasing proportion of Latinos in the U.S. - This is a study which finds that "Latino children now constitute a majority or near majority of first graders in nine of the nation's largest cities." [4/1/09]

Immigration issue - Here's a lot of background information, polling data, etc. on the topic of immigration from the Public Agenda. [added 7/6/06]

"Does inequality matter to individual welfare?" - interesting economic analysis of the relationship between inequality and happiness in Latin America [added 6/17/05]

Pew Hispanic Center - The Center provides a large number of reports, surveys and links related to Hispanic life and impact in the U.S. [added 3/2/05]

Hispanic Fact Pack (2004) - excellent supplement to Advertising Age with lots of information and examples of advertising, marketing and media for the Hispanic market [added 12/1/04]



India's first transgender TV host - "Her forthcoming show, called 'Yours, Rose,' will be a venue to debate all kinds of socially taboo topics." [added 3/23/08]

Widows in India flock to city to die - Sad story of how, "ostracized by society, thousands of India's widows flock to the holy city of Vrindavan waiting to die." [added 9/30/07]

India's lower castes and jobs - article about affirmative action efforts for those often shunned in India's society [added 9/30/07]

The Sikh turban - "The purpose of this essay is to examine how the turban has transformed from a sacred piece of attire for Sikhs to a target for discriminatory conduct and an object of marginalization after 9/11." [added 7/7/07]

India's "Untouchables" - report (1999) from the Human Rights Watch - "Broken People: Caste Violence Against India’s 'Untouchables'”


"Muslims are men, Christians are people" - interesting research on our stereotypes of these groups

"Quarter of Muslims face challenges while banking" - According to a new report from the Institute of Social Policy and Understanding on American Muslims

“Poll says that 56% of Americans don’t want kids taught Arabic numerals” - Yikes.

(Some) Americans can distinguish between terrorists and Muslims - according to this study

Mapping Islamophobia - a fascinating site that maps out incidents of Islamophobia as well as incidents of Muslim-American communities countering Islamophobia

Islamophobia ingrained in U.S. legal system long before 9/11 - an interview with the author of American Islamophobia

Muslims are internalizing Islamophobia - according to this report from the Institute for Social Policy and Understanding

"Non-Muslim attackers get a lot less media coverage than those who claim Islam"

"To be Arab and American" - a lot of good resources in this essay

"How and why we target Muslims, immigrants" - an essay reviewing some research

Muslim parents worry about giving children Muslim-sounding names - I wonder how many non-Muslim, non-Arab American parents have named their child Muhammed?  If I get one more Kaylee/Kaylie/Kaitlyn/Caitlin in my classes ...

Muslims still aren't Americans - good essay describing a continuing strong bias against Muslims in the U.S. [added 8/19/13]

Pro-Muslim subway ads in New York City - [added 1/1/13]

Double standard for Muslims in America? - a disturbing story told by Glenn Greenwald [added 1/1/13]

Silencing Muslims - A Muslim writer talks about his experiences. [added 1/1/13]

NYPD shows recruits radical Islam video - I linked to FBI training that included anti-Islam/Muslim propaganda. Here is some from the NYPD: "A movie about radical Islam was shown to nearly 1,500 NYPD recruits for up to a year of their training, The New York Times reported Tuesday. Police chiefs originally said the film, called The Third Jihad and promoting an image of American Muslims as radicalized, had been mistakenly screened 'a couple of times.' But documents obtained under the Freedom of Information Law show it had been shown "on a continuous loop" for up to a year of training." [added 7/1/12]

Florida Family Association attacks Muslim TV show - Here is the website of the organization that is one of the primary instigators of the withdrawal of some advertisers from the TV show All-American Muslim. The site states, "The show profiles only Muslims that appear to be ordinary folks while excluding many Islamic believers whose agenda poses a clear and present danger to liberties and traditional values that the majority of Americans cherish." See The Daily Showtake on it here. [added 1/29/12]

"The roots of the Islamophobia network in America" - a detailed report from the Center for American Progress on how Islamophobia has been funded and disseminated in America [added 1/29/12]

Reducing Islamophobia - This interesting essay examines how homophobia has been reduced in the U.S. (despite stories below) and attempts to suggest how these processes might apply to reducing Islamophobia. [added 12/19/10]

Merkel: Multicultural society has failed - That is the German Chancellor claiming that attempts to build a multicultural society in Germany have not worked. [added 12/18/10]

Expressions of Anti-Islam hate and pushbacks against it - [added 10/23/10]

"Can implicit religious bias affect jury verdicts?" - "Homaidan Al-Turki, a Saudi Arabian citizen pursuing his doctoral degree in Colorado, was on trial in Colorado for assaulting his housekeeper. As the jury was sworn in, one juror indicated he might believe a Muslim would more likely break the law under certain circumstances. Al-Turki's lawyer asked if he could probe further, but the judge said no. During the trial, the prosecutor showed the jury a mannequin dressed in 'Muslim women’s clothing.' Allusions were made to Osama bin Laden, Ramadan, and 9/11. The jury convicted and Al-Turki was sentenced to 28 years in prison." [added 10/23/10]

Anti-mosque protests across the U.S. - It's not just at ground zero. [added 10/23/10]

Americans prejudiced towards Muslims, Jews - "A poll about Americans' views on Islam concludes that the strongest predictor of prejudice against Muslims is whether a person holds similar feelings about Jews." [added 2/7/10]

Banning the full facial veil in France - "A fractured panel of French legislators endorsed the idea of a ban on full facial veils in government offices, public hospitals and mass transit, while the Parliament remains deeply divided over the effectiveness and constitutionality of such a law." [added 2/7/10]

"Muslims in America" - interesting report from Contexts Magazine [3/30/09]

"The headscarf as threat?" - interesting article in which the author compares "how American and German judges conceptualize the harm the headscarf poses to society" [added 9/30/07]

Sydney (Australia) riots
two examples of prejudice-related violence from Australia [added 7/5/06]

Campus Watch - An interesting and provocative website has just been posted by the Middle East Forum. It will be monitoring faculty and academic institutions to see how they handle Middle Eastern and Islamic issues. It plans to do so because there is a problem. The "problem," according to this website is that "American scholars of the Middle East, to varying degrees, reject the views of most Americans and the enduring policies of the U.S. government about the Middle East over a dozen administrations." One cause of this "bias" is that "academics seem generally to dislike their own country and think even less of American allies abroad." "Dossiers" of problematic faculty and institutions are posted on the website to "address the root of the problem: the professorate." [added 11/7/02]




“Behind barbed wire:  Japanese-American internment camp newspapers”

“The Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement” - a large digital collection of articles, maps, photographs, audio, video, and more from The Bancroft Library

"How Americans and Japanese see each other" - The link is to a brief analysis of a recent Pew Research Center survey.   Here is a more detailed description of the results. H/T to Jessica Hartnett. [added 7/14/15]

A first-hand account of a 7-yr old living in a Japanese internment camp - [7/1/15]

Japanese-American internment - Another exhibit, "Exploring the Japanese American internment through film and the Internet," exploring... well, you can read. [added 7/7/07]

"Suffering Under a Great Injustice" - Here you will find a large collection of Ansel Adams' photographs of Japanese-American internment at Manzanar - perhaps you can incorporate some of these images into a lecture or send students to analyze them in some manner [added 6/6/02]

"Japanese Americans and the U.S. Constitution" - excellent multimedia-rich site that explores the period of Japanese internment with images, music, text and first-person accounts - produced by Smithsonian, it contains over 800 artifacts that can be browsed



Antisemitic incidents on the rise in U.S. in 2022 - From a report from the Anti-Defamation League (ADL): "In 2022, ADL tabulated 3,697 antisemitic incidents throughout the United States. This is a 36% increase from the 2,717 incidents tabulated in 2021 and the highest number on record since ADL began tracking antisemitic incidents in 1979. This is the third time in the past five years that the year-end total has been the highest number ever recorded."

Significant increase of antisemitic beliefs in U.S. (2023)

"Holocaust survivors launch new campaign to show how 'it started with words'"

Center for Jewish History - The Center provides a huge, digital collection of photos, manuscripts, oral histories, and more. [added 8/19/13]

"Chiune Sugihara: Japanese diplomat who saved 6000 Jews during Holocaust" - [added 8/19/13]

Americans prejudiced towards Muslims, Jews - "A poll about Americans' views on Islam concludes that the strongest predictor of prejudice against Muslims is whether a person holds similar feelings about Jews." Here is the survey itself. [added 2/7/10]

"Facebook under fire for allowing Holocaust deniers" - [added 7/11/09]

Holocaust denial - a pamphlet from the Jewish Virtual Library describing this propaganda movement [4/1/09]

"The silent stereotype" - interesting blog about a Anti-Defamation League survey of American attitudes towards Jews in America and related topics, and its relationship to the courtroom [added 12/9/07]

"America and the Holocaust" - a website accompanying the film "America and the Holocaust" which contains a lot of resources including a complete transcript and links to many of the primary resources [added 9/30/07]

A story of Jewish refugees fleeing war-torn Europe - An exhibit, "Flight and rescue," from the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum that tells the story of 2100 Jewish refugees who escaped with the help of a Dutch businessman and a Japanese diplomat. [added 7/06/07]

Kristallnacht exhibition - From the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, this online exhibition "Kristallnacht: The November 1938 pogroms" describes the destruction and intimidation from that "night of broken glass." [added 12/29/06]

"Letters from Sala: A young woman's life in Nazi labor camps" - This exhibition of text, letters and images telling the story of a young girl (she was 16 when it began) who survived five years in seven different camps comes from the New York Public Library. [added 12/26/06]

"Auschwitz: Inside the Nazi State" - site accompanying the 2005 PBS show [added 6/17/05]

60th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz - lots of good material related to Auschwitz from BBC News [added 3/20/05]

350 years of Jewish life in America - an exhibition from the Library of Congress [added 12/1/04]

"Telling Their Stories: Oral History of the Holocaust" - "Read, watch and listen to interviews of Holocaust survivors conducted by high school students." [added 11/11/03]

Holocaust denial - well-designed site that chronicles and analyzes the libel trial of David Irving, "a British Holocaust denier," against "American professor Deborah Lipstadt and her British publisher, Penguin Books" - interesting look into deniers' motives and thinking [added 7/21/03]

Holocaust teaching guide - hundreds of images, videos and other resources


Native American/Aboriginal

"Why are indigenous mascots still a thing?" - Here is an interesting review of some of the history of indigenous mascots used by sports teams, and the responses to it. It made me think: I always hear about these mascots associated with sports teams. Are there indigenous mascots used by cities, or companies, or other organizations? If you know of any, drop me a line.

Ongoing "genocide" against indigenous people in the U.S.

Native American stories - A multimedia website from the Smithsonian - National Museum of the American Indian

“How Native American team names distort your psychology”

American Indians in Children's Literature - This is a blog that follows and comments on "indigenous peoples in children's and young adult books, the school curriculum, popular culture, and society."

November is National American Indian and Alaska Native Heritage Month - The Scout Report serves up a lot of good resources for the topic [added 2/20/14]

Native American mascots in schools and sports - Sam Sommers provides some good commentary on related events and research on the question of whether the use of Native American mascots is harmful or helpful. [added 7/1/12]

Native Americans' portrayal in the media - The Reading Red Report is a "content analysis of general-audience newspapers in circulation areas with high percentages of Native Americans." [4/1/09]

Famous Native American speech - This speech, delivered by Wampsutta in 1970, apparently sparked the convening of the National Day of Mourning. Read about both here. [added 12/31/06]

Native American Stereotypes in the Media - examples of how Native Americans are sometimes portrayed in the media [added 11/7/02]


Gender-based Prejudice

Individuals born with intersex traits - As this essay points out, many of us have trouble dealing with ambiguity.

"Another hurdle for women professors?" - "Although a lot of research has looked at how students are evaluating their professors at the end of the semester once the class is over, few people have considered whether this discrimination against women is present from the onset of the semester and, if not, what during the semester might make those first impressions change."

"How hatred of women is fueling the far-right"

“Celebrity fat shaming has ripple effects on women’s implicit anti-fat attitudes”

  The story of Black, female scientists in the movie Hidden Figures 

"Middle school removes the word 'feminist' from girl's shirt in class photo" - She might has well have "terrorist" written on her shirt [added 7/14/15]

"Nearly 100% of women in jobs that typically pay men more" - [added 7/29/13]

Should adult males be allowed to sit next to unattended children on planes? - Story of a male nurse who was asked to move to another seat. H/T to Dennis Dew. [added 1/1/13]

Afghan school girls poisoned - "More than 120 schoolgirls and three teachers have been poisoned in the second attack in as many months blamed on conservative radicals in the country's north, Afghan police and education officials said on Wednesday. The attack occurred in Takhar province where police said that radicals opposed to education of women and girls had used an unidentified toxic powder to contaminate the air in classrooms. Scores of students were left unconscious." [added 6/29/12]

Afghan girls pay for elders' misdeeds - [added 6/29/12]

Legal barriers to economic inclusion for women - "Women, Business and the Law 2012: Removing Barriers to Economic Inclusion finds that while 36 economies reduced legal differences between men and women, 103 out of 141 economies studied still impose legal differences on the basis of gender in at least one of the report’s key indicators. The report also identifies 41 law and regulatory reforms enacted between June 2009 and March 2011 that could enhance women’s economic opportunities." [added 1/29/12]

Corrective rape - "A 24-year-old who was stabbed to death in South Africa is the victim of "corrective rape," gay rights activists said Thursday, a crime where men attack lesbians in an attempt to reverse their sexual orientation." [added 8/20/11]

"Iceland: The world's most feminist country" - I think it would be interesting to ask students or anyone what they think would make a country "female-friendly." Or male-friendly. [added 7/14/10]

"Rescuing girls from sex slavery" - a very compelling story from India [added 7/13/10]

"Turkish girl, 16, buried alive for talking to boys" - [added 3/7/10]

In UK, call to ban race and gender info in CVs - [added 2/7/10]

Pay inequality in the workplace - research in the UK on disparities between men and women in terms of pay [added 1/18/10]

Why are there so few female chess champions? - This is a clever study and an excellent example of stereotype threat. "Forty-two male-female pairs, matched for ability, played two chess games via the Internet. When players were unaware of the sex of opponent (control condition), females played approximately as well as males. When the gender stereotype was activated (experimental condition), women showed a drastic performance drop, but only when they were aware that they were playing against a male opponent. When they (falsely) believed to be playing against a woman, they performed as well as their male opponents. In addition, our findings suggest that women show lower chess-specific self-esteem and a weaker promotion focus, which are predictive of poorer chess performance." [added 1/18/10]

"Korea's 'best mom' chosen as face of new currency" - Interesting story -- "South Korea's central bank on Monday chose the face of Korean motherhood as the first woman to be featured on its banknotes, but women's rights groups say the selection only reinforces sexist stereotypes." [added 12/15/07]

Widows in India flock to city to die - Sad story of how, "ostracized by society, thousands of India's widows flock to the holy city of Vrindavan waiting to die." [added 9/30/07]

Violence against girls - A report from the 51st U.N. Commission on the Status of Women -- it includes separate reports on violence against schoolgirls, violence against child domestic workers, and violence against girls in conflict with the law. [added 7/7/07]

"Women lose ground in the new Iraq" - [added 12/30/06]

"Visible invisibility: Women of color in law firms" - report from the American Bar Association Commission on Women in the Profession [added 12/26/06]

Barriers to women's advancement in the workplace - From Catalyst, here is the executive summary of "Different cultures, similar perceptions: Stereotyping of Western European business leaders," and the full report. [added 7/6/06]

Discrimination against women - From the United Nations, "The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), adopted in 1979 by the UN General Assembly, is often described as an international bill of rights for women. Consisting of a preamble and 30 articles, it defines what constitutes discrimination against women and sets up an agenda for national action to end such discrimination." [added 6/20/05]

Female Genital Mutilation (FGM): NOCIRC - The link is to NOCIRC, an "educational non-profit organization committed to securing the birthright of male, female, and intersex children and babies to keep their sex organs intact." [added 3/30/04]

Repression of Women in Afghanistan - "'We want to live as humans:' Repression of women and girls in Western Afghanistan" is a report from the Human Rights Watch. [added 2/4/03]


Sexual Orientation-based Prejudice

Countries around the World

“Taiwan parliament legalizes same-sex marriage in first for Asia”

Austria legalizes same-sex marriage - I guess since Australia just did, and Austria is next alphabetically…

"India declares freedom of sexual orientation a fundamental right"

The response to India's recriminalization of homosexual behavior - The first link is to the India court's ruling, and here is some response to it. [added 2/20/14]

Germany votes to legalize same-sex marriage

Court in Taiwan rules in favor of same-sex marriage - could be first such approval in Asia

Finland approves same-sex marriage - [7/2/15]

"Married Malawian gay couple face test" - ...not so much in Malawi. [added 2/7/10]

"Italy 'to open first prison for transgender inmates'" - [added 2/7/10]

Africa and homosexuality - Is Africa being "plunged" into a "new era of hate crimes," and is the Christian right playing a role in that? This article focuses on Uganda's anti-homosexuality bill and similar activity in other African countries. [added 1/18/10]

The first gay marriage in Latin America - "Two Argentinians will this week become the first gay couple in Latin America to get married, following a three-year campaign that pitted politician against politician, overturned laws and angered millions of Catholics." [added 1/18/10]

In UK, heterosexual couple denied civil union - The couple applied in London for a civil union, but was turned down "because UK law bans opposite-sex civil partnerships." [added 1/18/10]

"India decriminalizes gay sex" - [added 1/18/10]

"Albania to 'approve gay marriage'" - Yes, Albania! "Albanian Prime Minister Sali Berisha has announced his party will propose a law legalising same-sex marriage. It is an unexpected move in a country that is still one of the most conservative in Europe and where homosexuality was illegal until 1995." [added 1/18/10]

"That's so gay" in the UK - story about how the phrase is used in the UK [added 7/11/09]

Iraqi gay men face "lives of hell" - [added 7/11/09]

"Bahrain recognizes sex change" - "It took Zainab Rabie three years to become a man as the law would have it. After a long legal battle, the Arab island country of Bahrain finally recognized Rabie, 34, as a man. Rabie was born an intersexual, with anatomy that is characteristically both male and female." [added 8/18/08]

Thailand: School introduces toilets for transvestites - [added 8/18/08]

Norway grants marriage equality to same-sex couples - [added 8/18/08]

"Same-sex marriages performed in Greece" - "Defying governmental wrath, the mayor of a remote Greek island performed the country's first same-sex marriages on Tuesday, wedding two men and two women." [added 8/18/08]

U.K.: Heinz withdraws commercial with two men kissing - The first link is to an article about the story; here is the ad. [added 8/18/08]

U.K.: "One in five gay people suffer hate attacks" - a survey in the U.K. [added 8/18/08]

Northern Ireland: Health chief calls homosexuality an illness - [added 8/18/08]

"Mexico transgender couple ties the knot, pushes law" - [6/20/08]

Boycotts of companies supporting LGBTQ+

The mental health of LGBTQ youth"

"Transgenderism must be eradicated" - This is an interesting essay which links attacks against transgenders and genocide.

"Transgender children face discrimination even at primary school level"

Children of same-sex couples likely to develop well socially

Anti-gay prejudice continues - It is not just transgender prejudice that is clearly present in our society, as can be seen in U.S. state laws banning the "normalization" of LGBTQ+ attitudes and behaviors.

The truth and science of transgender - The article also includes a podcast on the topic.

Lynn Conway's (transgender) story

"I'm 57 years old and my father just disowned me for being gay"

“ Gender norms affect attitudes towards gay men and lesbian women globally” - For example, not surprisingly, “gay men are disliked more than lesbian women across 23 countries.”

“Gay Asian Americans seen as more ‘American’” - In a follow-up to an earlier study I sent you that found that overweight Asian Americans are seen as more American, this new study finds that gay Asian Americans are also seen as more American than straight Asian Americans.

“4 men charged with hate crimes in beating of gay couple” - Sexual orientation is often an invisible or concealable characteristic of people, but not if they hold hands in public.  This link is to another recent example.

“More Americans than ever support same-sex marriage” - That’s a remarkable increase of 40 percentage points from just 1996.  It’s interesting in class to discuss the factors that have led to such a dramatic change.

Role models for coming out - good, brief essay about the value of role models to help teens deal with sexual identity

Sources of attitudes towards same-sex marriage

A new threat to the military:  Transgender soldiers - Many of the same arguments that were used for why women, Blacks, and homosexuals should not be allowed in the military are being used again against transgender soldiers.

The story about Ellen DeGeneres coming out on TV 20 years ago - Most of your students were born around that time.  How is their world different?

The father of "homophobia" - a brief essay about Dr. George Weinberg who coined the term "homophobia," and who recently died

"Trans kids massively benefit from being allowed to socially transition"

"Entire neighborhood flies rainbow flags after bigots egg their gay neighbors"

Violence is common against LGBT - Here is a good article about how the Orlando, FL shooting is not an isolated act of violence against LGBT.   Apparently, the Orlando shooter's father said his son had recently been disgusted by seeing two men kissing.   Here is an essay about how "two men kissing is still a stunning, terrifying sight."

"It takes a village to bully a transgender kindergartner"

The fascinating story of identical twins... - where one is transgender and one is not

"Is 'homophobia' a mental illness?" - an excellent analysis by Greg Herek from his blog Beyond Homophobia

Diversity in human sexuality - The first link is to a "new report on sexual orientation from the Academy of Science of South Africa." As David Myers notes, "The report is state of the art.  It’s lucid and easily readable.  It gets the important facts exactly right (methinks).  And it speaks to pertinent issues in African countries, and also to controversies here in the USA." Here is some commentary in the journal Nature. [added 7/20/15]

The rapid turnaround in public opinion on same-sex marriage - a good blog entry describing the recent history [added 7/20/15]

"Multinational study uncovers widespread homophobia in sports" - [added 7/14/15]

Two women embracing on a train platform - This picture has gone viral with a very interesting take. [added 7/14/15]

National Center for Transgender Equality - [added 7/13/15]

"The best gay soccer team in the world" - [added 7/13/15]

APA says homosexuality is not abnormal - A good overview of recent U.S. history on this topic [added 7/13/15]

LGBTQIA? Inclusion confusion - Different organizations include different groups and use different names.  How does one decide what label(s) to use? [added 7/13/15]

"My husband's not gay" - about married Mormon men who are attracted to men [added 7/13/15]

Same-sex equal rights okay; PDA still not - "A new study led by a researcher at Indiana University suggests that heterosexuals are generally supportive of legal benefits for same-sex couples, but don't want to see those couples display affection in public." [7/2/15]

"Things are improving for LGBT students,... - but they're still really bad." [7/2/15]

"Marriage approval versus legal status" - a great graph from xkcd comics [7/2/15]

"Why gay marriage opponents lost: The social angle" - Good brief essay looking at how such changes can evolve [7/2/15]

Mom thought her 3-yr-old might be gay; beat him to death - No, really. [7/1/15]

40 years of changing attitudes towards gays and lesbians - Captured well in the accompanying chart [7/1/15]

"She's bi, get over it" - interesting essay from a bisexual about her experience [added 2/20/14]

"He's tough enough to be a sissy in Wyoming" - fascinating story [added 2/20/14]

Anti-gay discrimination in rental housing market - from Housing and Urban Development (HUD) study [added 8/19/13]

First openly gay athlete in a major U.S. team sport - Jason Collins, who plays in the National Basketball Association, just came out. Other retired players have come out before, but he is the first active player. In a male team sport, that is. Women have come out before, but that doesn't count. [added 8/19/13]

"Homo nest raided, queen bees are stinging mad" - That is the headline of a New York Daily News article in 1969. Interesting to see how stories like these were reported in the past. [added 8/19/13]

Homophobia Twitter tracker - Someone created software that tracks how often terms like "faggot," "dyke," and "so gay" are used on Twitter. The word "faggot" is used nearly one million times a month. [added 1/1/13]

"Federal anti-gay hate crimes law gets first test in Kentucky" - [added 7/1/12]

"APA files two briefs in support of same-sex couples" - [added 7/1/12]

"Is homophobia disappearing?" - "Sociologist Mark McCormack says it is -- in the U.K., at least -- and that it's revolutionizing male friendships." [added 7/1/12]

"Born this way" - "A photo/essay project for gay adults (of all genders) to submit childhood pictures and stories (roughly ages 2 to 12), reflecting memories and early beginnings of their innate LGBTQ selves. Nurture allows what nature endows. And it's their nature, their truth!" Lots of good examples. [added 1/29/12]

First openly gay NBA executive - Apparently the first executive in any sport to come out
[added 1/29/12]

Elmhurst College first in U.S. to ask prospective students if LGBT - The College is seeking diversity on campus. [added 1/29/12]

Can't discuss that some people are homosexuals - "A bill passed Friday by the Tennessee Senate would forbid public school teachers and students in grades kindergarten through eight from discussing the fact that some people are gay." [added 8/20/11]

"Gay suicide risk in the U.S. by region" - [added 8/20/11]

"First openly transgender man to play on a Division 1 basketball team" - [added 12/19/10]

School board member "wants gays dead" - An Arkansas school board member posts very offensive messages on his Facebook page. Here is a report describing reaction to his posts. Here is a video from Anderson Cooper's TV show in which he apparently gets the board member to resign.
[added 12/19/10]

Gay teens attempt suicide because they know they are abnormal - so says Family Research Council President Tony Perkins
[added 12/19/10]

"Gay teen worried he might be Christian" - very amusing Onion article [added 2/7/10]

Formal religion's response to same-sex unions/marriages and "reparative therapy" - A good essay from David Myers [added 1/19/10]

Reducing homophobia through the "Alien-Nation" - This fascinating study uses a clever simulation in which half the participants "formed groups of four to five members and imagined landing on an alien planet that's populated by aliens who look exactly like humans, but who don't allow any public displays of affection, and live in same-sex housing and reproduce by artificial insemination.... A re-test of the participants' attitudes towards homosexuality showed that those in the Alien-Nation group were more able to take the perspective of homosexuals, than were the control participants, and this in turn was associated with more empathy towards people who are homosexual, a greater tendency to think of homosexuals and heterosexuals as all belonging to the same category (being human) and ultimately to more positive attitudes towards people who are homosexual. The Alien condition participants' attitudes also remained more positive compared with controls at one week follow-up." [added 1/18/10]

Sex reassignment cases - The first transgender example: "Through reconstructive surgeries, electrolysis, laser procedures and voice lessons, Henry Joseph became Jennifer Elizabeth, known as Jenny. She is a practicing family physician in Nashua, New Hampshire."

"Simply knowing gay people helps, but isn't enough" - interesting blog entry from Beyond Homophobia [added 7/11/09]

The threat of gay marriage - View the anti-gay ad "The Gathering Storm" and read some analysis of it. [added 7/11/09]

"Raped and killed for being a lesbian" - in South Africa [4/1/09]

Football (soccer) stars "to tackle homophobia with video" - If anyone in the UK ever sees this video I would love to hear about it. Or, if it ever appears online could you pass along the link? Thanks. [4/1/09]

Ban freshmen from sidewalks - amusing take on Proposition 8 (in California) at Princeton [4/1/09]

"U.S. balks at decriminalizing homosexuality" - "Alone among major Western nations, the United States has refused to sign a declaration presented Thursday at the United Nations calling for worldwide decriminalization of homosexuality. In all, 66 of the U.N.'s 192 member countries signed the nonbinding declaration - which backers called a historic step to push the General Assembly to deal more forthrightly with any-gay discrimination. More than 70 U.N. members outlaw homosexuality, and in several of them homosexual acts can be punished by execution." [4/1/09]

First openly transgender mayor in U.S. - [3/30/09]

The gay Bradley effect? - Follow a link above (under African) to some discussion of whether the (Black) Bradley effect would make an appearance in the 2008 U.S. presidential race. Here is some discussion of whether or not there was a gay Bradley effect in the California Proposition 8 vote. [3/30/09]

California allows same-sex marriage - an interesting blog entry responding to the California decision [added 8/18/08]

U.S.: The Lawrence King murder - [added 8/18/08]

More research on the gay brain - [added 8/18/08]

"Sexual orientation, disclosure, and earnings" - Why do "Gay/bisexual workers tend to earn less than other men?" [added 4/7/08]

India's first transgender TV host - "Her forthcoming show, called 'Yours, Rose,' will be a venue to debate all kinds of socially taboo topics." [added 3/23/08]

Banning transgender discrimination - Michigan governor "adds gender identity to a list of other prohibited grounds for discrimination that includes religion, race, color, national origin, age, sex, sexual orientation, height, weight, marital status, politics, disability or genetic information." [added 12/16/07]

"Film with same-sex parents splits school district" [added 11/17/07]

"Gay or straight? Watch his walk" - describes some interesting research I saw presented at SPSP 2007 [added 11/17/07]

"The science of gaydar" - Here's a very interesting article in The New Yorker describing some research identifying physical characteristics, such as the counterclockwise hair whorl and denser fingerprint ridges, that are more common in gay men than straight men.

"4/10 Americans have close friends or relatives who are gay" - survey from Pew Research Center -- "survey finds familiarity is closely linked to greater tolerance" [added 7/16/07]

N.J. third state to offer civil unions [added 7/7/07]

Soy makes you gay! - Did you know?...Read all about it. [added 12/31/06]

Banning of civil unions in Virginia - [added 12/31/06]

"Area homosexual saves four from fire" - An amusing article from the satirical online newspaper The Onion [added 12/31/06]

7/10 heterosexuals in U.S. know someone that is gay - a survey with some interesting results [added 12/31/06]

Male homosexuality tied to older brothers? - "A new study finds that homosexuality grows more likely with the greater number of biological older brothers-those sharing both father and mother-that a male has." [added 12/26/06]

Beyond Lisping - "The following article, written for a general audience, is about code switching, gay speech styles, and speech characteristics including lisping." [added 1/15/06]

Lesbian and gay history in America - This website accompanies the PBS program, "Out of the past: 400 years of lesbian and gay history in America" first aired in 2000. Includes a timeline and other resources.
[added 7/1/04]

Gay rights - special report with a number of related stories from the UK [added 6/9/04]

"Healthy Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Students Project" - Project from APA with the mission to "strengthen the capacity of the nation's schools to prevent the behavioral health risks of lesbian, gay, and bisexual students through knowledge development, dissemination, and application, working with and through national organizations of school stakeholders." [added 7/23/03]

"Nazi Persecution of Homosexuals 1933-1945" - a just-launched online exhibition from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum [added 12/06/02]

International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission - reports on discrimination and abuse worldwide - many such incidences are described here [added 8/28/02]

"Assault on Gay America" - PBS Frontline show on the life and death of Billy Jack Gaither


Disability/Disadvantaged-based Prejudice



Teachers show bias against overweight kids - Teachers were asked to evaluate an essay written by an 11-year-old, with an accompanying picture altered for weight.

“Celebrity fat shaming has ripple effects on women’s implicit anti-fat attitudes”

“How the stigma against obesity harms people’s health”

“Employers are discriminating against overweight women” - legally

50 overweight women kept a "fat stigma" diary

"Anticipating an interaction with an obese person provokes feelings of social power" - We feel empowered around the stigmatized. [7/1/15]

Should a student's BMI appear on his/her report card? - a good question to throw out to your students [added 8/20/11]

Negative attitudes towards obesity spreading around the globe - "The researchers surveyed people in Mexico, Argentina, Paraguay, the U.S., and the U.K. Also included were American Samoa, Puerto Rico, and Tanzania -- cultures that have traditionally been thought of as fat-positive. People were asked if they agreed or disagreed with a series of statements about body size. Some statements were fat-negative ('Fat people are lazy'), others were fat-positive ('A big woman is a beautiful woman')." [added 8/20/11]

The stigma of obesity - [added 1/18/10]

"Weight bias is as prevalent as racial discrimination" - [added 4/25/08]

Hiring obese applicants? - "Evidence of unequal treatment in hiring of obese applicants: A field experiment" is an interesting study conducted in Sweden. [added 7/16/07]

"Why we are prejudiced against unattractive people"

"Combating stigma against people with intellectual and developmental disabilities"

International Disability and Development Consortium - quite a few resources on disability at their website

Invisible disabilities - Using hearing loss as an example, David Myers discusses less visible disabilities that we often try to conceal, and the consequences of that invisibility.

The Disability History Association - This new website has a blog and is beginning to accumulate some teaching resources.

A person with a disability or a disabled person? - This article explores the arguments for which language is more appropriate.

"Thousands share their invisible disabilities on Twitter"

Disability History Museum

Are the unemployed being discriminated against? - [added 6/5/11]

Ouch! A disability website - "Ouch! is a website from the BBC that reflects the lives and experiences of disabled people. It has articles, blogs, a very busy messageboard and an award-winning downloadable radio show - The Ouch Podcast). It's aimed at those with a stakehold in disability: family, friends, professionals and, rather importantly, disabled people themselves - without whom all this would be a bit meaningless." [added 6/5/11]

20th anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act - The first link is to a lot of good resources from this government site on the Act and its history. Here and here are more stories and experiences about the Act. [added 10/23/10]

"Special-needs kids abused in schools" - [added 7/11/09]

Disability etiquette - "Tips on interacting with people with disabilities" from the United Spinal Association [3/30/09]

The stigma of mental illness - Article about a survey in Canada -- ""This year's report card shines a harsh, and frankly unflattering, light on the attitudes we Canadians have concerning mental health," said the group's president, Dr. Brian Day, in a release." [added 10/11/08]

"Ghetto tax" - Study finds that those who live in low-income neighborhoods often pay considerably more for car insurance, groceries and more. [added 7/8/07]

Discrimination against persons with disabilities - report from the U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development [added 1/8/06]

Age-based Prejudice

Reducing the effects of negative stereotypes of aging - [7/1/15]

The changing face of ageism - an excellent Observer article reviews the recent research on ageism. [added 2/20/14]

Stereotype threat for the elderly - Sam Sommers summarizes some interesting, research that found that 70-year-olds only did worse than 20-year-olds on a memory test when they were told it was a memory test rather than a test of language processing and verbal ability. [added 1/29/12]

More on singlism and the pressure to get married - Not in this article, but notice all the effort to get Susan Boyle hooked up? [added 7/11/09]

Singlism - prejudice and discrimination against singles [6/20/08]

Ageism in America - This is a report from the International Longevity Center documenting and analyzing examples of discrimination based upon age. [added 7/6/06]


Reducing Prejudice

Diversity/Implicit-bias Training

"implicit bias training has little effect" - Again, it depends on how it is constructed and conducted.

Does diversity/implicit bias training work? - I don't think we know the full answer to that question yet.  Recently, the Trump administration issued a directive that "bars federal departments and agencies, government contractors, and any recipients of federal grants from holding such training for employees."  This article in the Chronicle of Higher Education addresses some of the research. 

"The problem with implicit bias training" - another review of the research on this topic

Will Starbucks racial bias training help? - That is happening across all Starbucks stores on Tuesday, May 29.  This link is to another analysis of the effectiveness of such training.

Unlearning oppression - a sociological perspective

Systemic biases in children can be reduced through role-playing

"Quality contact curbs conspiracy beliefs" - about marginalized communities. more of the power of contact

Tools for "eliminating racism in workplaces and communities" - shared by SPSP (Society for Personality and Social Psychology)

"Treat implicit bias as a public health problem" - A report from Psychological Science in the Public Interest

"To fight bias, consider highlighting your race or gender" - opposite of what many women and people of color think

Meet a Jew program - "The Central Council of Jews in Germany has launched a program called 'Meet a Jew' in the hopes that if Germans actually met a real, live Jewish person, perhaps it could be a start in addressing the burgeoning antisemitism in the country."

Could mindfulness training change the way we treat different races? - This research suggests that it could.

"Combating stigma against people with intellectual and developmental disabilities"

Combating stereotypes and bias - Here is a series of interviews and articles on the topic from APS.  Here is a link to conversations with students and early-career researchers studying the same topic.

"Ethnic diversity on campus helps break down stereotypes"

"Protests over killings of Black people could erode racism" - An interview with psychologist James Jones

We know a lot about racism, but changing it is still a challenge

"Higher education's role in... - promoting racial healing and the power of wonder" - a statement from AAC&U.  Here is a statement against racism from SPSP.  Here is a statement from APS. What role do you think such statements play?

Talking about race - Not an easy thing to do.  Here are some resources to help with that process from the National Museum of African American History & Culture.

Could mental health days help California students reduce stigma?

“Bringing up past injustices make majority groups defensive”

Deep canvassing – a method to reduce bigotry? - a little research suggests it is hard but it may help.

“Interracial contact can reduce physician bias”

Reducing prejudice through “hypocrisy intervention” - a clever strategy

“Putting yourself in their shoes… - … may make you LESS open to their beliefs.”

Reducing stereotyping/prejudice - This article describes a very clever series of studies that found an effective way to reduce people’s willingness to blame an entire group for the actions of a few of its members.  If you are going to read one article today….

"Move to Hawaii, become less racist" - A naturally occurring "experiment" found that White college students became less racist after nine months on the islands.

"Preventing police misconduct" - Here is a good article in the APA Monitor describing the application of social psychological research to the New Orleans police force.  This link is to an interview of someone who is similarly applying social psych research to help the "Pittsburgh police confront their racial biases."  It is a testament to these two men that they can manage their emotions well enough to work on such challenging problems.

Reducing racial bias - a good discussion of strategies that work and ones that don't

"New study shines light on how to 'make it better' for queer youth"

Responding to incidents of hate speech - This brief article from the Center for Research on Learning and Teaching at the University of Michigan offers a few suggestions to faculty on how to address student concerns and questions about incidents of hate speech.

"How Canadian police are improving their relationship with indigenous peoples"

"Talking to people about gay and transgender issues can changes their prejudices" - from research in Science 

Reducing prejudice through loving-kindness meditation - "Just seven minutes of loving-kindness meditation directed to a member of a racial out-group was sufficient to reduce racial bias towards that out-group."

Undermining racial bias in little kids - The study trained 4-6 year-olds to see members of another race as individuals.

"A research contest for reducing implicit racial biases" - When this study comparing 17 different strategies for reducing prejudice came out last year I sent you a link to it.  Here is another nice recap with a good graphic.  Here is the research article. [added 7/14/15]

Interventions boost self-esteem, reduce stereotype threat - A good, brief article describing some of the research [added 7/13/15]

"Visual illusions foster open-mindedness" - Interesting study [added 7/13/15]

Reducing the effects of negative stereotypes of aging - [7/1/15]

A simple intervention for first-generation and minority students entering college - It is remarkable to see another brief intervention having meaningful effects. [added 6/29/15]

"Responding to hate and bias at school" - good guides from Teaching Tolerance [added 1/1/13]

"Can you immunize yourself against prejudice?" - Blog entry about new research in which participants who were primed to be immunized against disease in some way were less likely to be racist. [added 1/29/12]

"Can friendship triumph over prejudice?" - "A wealth of research has shown that people typically feel more uncomfortable when dealing with someone from a different social group rather than someone from their own group. This can be for a range of reasons, including negative stereotypes, uncertainty about how they'll be evaluated or even fear that they'll be perceived as prejudiced. But little researched until now is the palliating effect of friendship on these kind of interactions. Now a US study led by Jonathan Cook has found that friendship removes the discomfort associated with interacting with someone of a different ethnicity, but fails to ameliorate all the anxieties associated with interacting with someone who has a different sexual orientation." [added 1/29/12]


Other Resources

Stereotype Threat

Reverse stereotype threat in chess - "Women chess players perform better against men than against other women."

Interventions boost self-esteem, reduce stereotype threat - A good, brief article describing some of the research [added 7/13/15]

Why stereotype threat? - Here is a good summary of recent research suggesting that stereotype threat is not just the result of overloading working memory.  Perhaps it also involves regulatory fit. [added 6/29/15]

Stereotype threat for the elderly - Sam Sommers summarizes some interesting, research that found that 70-year-olds only did worse than 20-year-olds on a memory test when they were told it was a memory test rather than a test of language processing and verbal ability. [added 1/29/12]

"Even made up stereotypes can hurt" - interesting study in which stereotype threat was demonstrated for the made-up learning styles of "concave" or "convex" information processing [added 1/29/12]

The Hillary Clinton effect - "An antidote to stereotype threat is to remind people of high achieving members of their in-group. For example, reminding Black Americans of President Obama's success has been shown to improve their subsequent IQ test performance. Psychologists think this 'Obama effect' occurs because the role-model's salient success takes away the burden people feel of having to represent their group. A new study by Cheryl Taylor and colleagues has built on this literature by showing that the stereotype-busting effect of a role-model only occurs if that role-model's success is perceived as due to their own innate ability and effort. If the role-model is considered to have been lucky then their stereotype-busting power is lost. Taylor's team call this the Hillary Clinton effect." [added 6/5/11]

Why are there so few female chess champions? - This is a clever study and an excellent example of stereotype threat. "Forty-two male-female pairs, matched for ability, played two chess games via the Internet. When players were unaware of the sex of opponent (control condition), females played approximately as well as males. When the gender stereotype was activated (experimental condition), women showed a drastic performance drop, but only when they were aware that they were playing against a male opponent. When they (falsely) believed to be playing against a woman, they performed as well as their male opponents. In addition, our findings suggest that women show lower chess-specific self-esteem and a weaker promotion focus, which are predictive of poorer chess performance." [added 1/18/10]

Stereotype threat resource - This is an excellent site that thoroughly investigates questions such as "What is stereotype threat?", "What are the consequences of stereotype threat?", "What are the mechanisms behind stereotype threat?", and "What can be done to reduce stereotype threat?" A very comprehensive and up-to-date bibliography is included. [added 4/19/09]

The Obama effect - Fascinating research: Blacks performed significantly worse on a test of 20 GRE questions prior to Obama's election. Blacks performed equally well on the test after the inauguration. Elimination of stereotype threat? The first link is to a New York Times article about the study. [4/1/09]

The Wonderlic test, stereotype threat and the law - "The Wonderlic is a twelve-minute, fifty-question exam designed to assess aptitude for learning a job and adapting to solve problems." It is given to many college football players prior to the National Football League draft. Sometimes it is viewed as an IQ test of prospective professional football players. This paper looks at whether stereotype threat is in play when players take the test, and it examines some of the legal implications of this process. [added 12/31/06]



Microaggressions - An excellent essay on the topic

Microaggressions - New special issue of Perspectives on Psychological Science focuses on updated research and theory on microaggressions.  The issue is freely available until October 31.  There is also a podcast on the topic at the link. 

Racial microaggressions - "Some racism is so subtle that neither victim nor perpetrator may entirely understand what is going on—which may be especially toxic for people of color." [added 8/20/11]

Racial microaggressions - The article describes what is meant by a microaggression. Here is a blog entry responding to the article. [4/1/09]

The effects of microaggressions



The stigma of atheism

"Religion's role in prejudice"

No open atheists in U.S. Congress - We can tolerate almost any group more than atheists.

Americans still really dislike atheists - According to this latest survey, the "good" news for atheists is that Muslims caught up with them.

"Are religious people really more prejudiced than non-believers?" - Not necessarily -- but it is often more intense and intolerant.

Racial, religious, and ethnic slurs on Twitter - A study of the use of language on Twitter [7/1/15]

Americans uncomfortable voting for president with certain religious affiliations - Republicans, Democrats, and Independents uncomfortable with an atheist, Mormon, or Muslim president. [added 1/29/12]

"Substance-use stigma impedes treatment in various ways"

"Does hatred cause irrationality or is it the other way around?" - You could build a whole course around that question! An interview of Daniel Stone, author of the new book Undue Hate

More educated, more tolerant? - Probably not. "A 15-year study of young people in Finland found that education level, nonrational thinking, cognitive potential, and cognitive performance were not associated with social intolerance, i.e., intolerance toward different attitudes, lifestyles, cultures, or values of others. On the other hand, higher social intolerance was associated with low flexibility, high perseverance and low persistence."

Bias exists in the way healthcare organizations operate

"Othered" in the UK - An extensive report on "how racism, xenophobia and religious discrimination were woven into the fabric of the United Kingdom"

Apparently meat-eaters and vegans (or vegetarians) don't hate each other

Shaming someone for their privilege - An interesting essay that would likely prompt a lot of good discussion with your students

How is the prejudice research conducted by those from marginalized groups perceived? - "Despite making important contributions to the study of prejudice, however, many prejudice researchers who themselves belong to marginalized groups routinely have the rigor, objectivity, and validity of their work questioned. They have reported that their work is routinely dismissed as 'me-search' and they are accused of being driven by vested interest or personal agenda."

"People hold negative views about those who believe life is meaningless" - According to research, even though atheists are disliked by many in this country (see here) there are at least some positive stereotypes about them.  Apparently not for life-is-meaningless believers.

"The U.S. needs tolerance more than unity" - an interesting analysis from Scientific American

When are we less likely to dehumanize prisoners? - When they are near the end of their sentence -- and not just because they may be older.

"Tribal identities fuel motivated reasoning" - 30 years ago in America people certainly held partisan beliefs and preferred certain candidates and parties over others.  But unlike then, now it seems that many people consider their political preferences/allegiances as central to their identity, as strongly as many do their religious beliefs. 

"How involvement with the criminal justice system deepens inequality" - a report from the Brennan Center for Justice

Political differences - APS shares several articles discussing research on “partisan prejudice across the political spectrum.”

The self-fulfilling prophecy - a good blog entry on the phenomenon, from a sociological perspective

“What happens when we attribute discrimination to implicit bias?” - The research findsWhen people believe discrimination was caused by implicit bias, they hold those who behave in discriminatory ways less accountable for their behavior.”

“How partisan hate leads people to believe lies”

Our differences (sometimes) divide us - Another excellent blog entry from David Myers – check out the scar study!

Prejudice formed from reading conspiracy theories can transfer to dislike of other groups as well

2017 U.S. hate crime statistics

"Responding to hate on campus" - Here are presentations and resources from a symposium on the topic at the 2017 APA conference.

"Looking for similarities can bring marginalized groups together"

Belief in a group's unchanging essence leads to isolating those groups - "So, if I'm high in essentialism, not only will I believe that men are essentially distinct from women, or that immigrants are essentially distinct from natives, but I'll also support legislation that enforces gender segregation in public bathrooms, or a presidential candidate who promises to build a wall along the Mexico-U.S. border."

Hate map - The Southern Poverty Law Center tracks hate groups in the U.S., and the results can be viewed through this interactive map.   Students could select a group and complete an assignment or project about it.

5- and 6-year-olds attribute more diverse attributes to similar rather than dissimilar others - It's not mentioned in this summary of the research, but it also sounds like the beginning of the homogeneity effect.

Why do we have biases? - This essay provides a nice discussion of two common motives: self-protection and efficiency.

Documenting Hate - Documenting Hate is a project to create a national (U.S.) database of hate crimes and bias incidents. You can read stories of hate crimes and bias incidents here.  Here is a link to a good history of how the U.S. came to document hate crimes.

Does being prejudiced make you a bad person? - interesting poll results on the question

"For Republicans, bigotry is the new normal" - Even U.S. newspaper editorial boards are now stating it bluntly.

 Why do we hate certain fictional villains so much? - This blog entry describes some possible evolutionary psychology explanations using research on helping and prejudice.

"The negative in positive stereotypes" - This blog entry reviews an interesting new article which finds that positive stereotypes can have some positive effects, but the effects tend to be more negative in interpersonal and group interactions.

Inequality in film - "Inequality in 700 popular films: Examining portrayals of gender, race, and LGBT status from 2007 to 2014" is a report from USC's Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism.

Sources of inequality - a good comic strip describing the effects of different background experiences [added 7/20/15]

"Madison first in nation to pass ordinance protecting atheists" - [added 7/14/15]

U.S. is "getting more tolerant of everyone (except racists)" - A study of attitudes from 1972-2012 [added 7/13/15]

The most economically segregated cities in America - Interesting study looks at why some cities are becoming even more segregated. [added 7/13/15]

Free speech (if you say what we want) - another case of the government privileging a favored group over a disfavored group [added 7/13/15]

Less fluency, more prejudice - Some interesting research on the fluency effect finds that it can also foster individual prejudice. [7/2/15]

"Group identify emphasized more by those who just make the cut" - "People and institutions who are marginal members of a high-status or well-esteemed group tend to emphasize their group membership more than those who are squarely entrenched members of the group, according to new research published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science." [7/1/15]

"Favoritism, not hostility, causes most discrimination" - This review of 50 years of research finds that although hostile expressions of prejudice were more common years ago, now discrimination more often takes the form of favoring those like you. [7/1/15]

We mostly hate people we know - and other facts about hatred from Wray Herbert's excellent blog [7/1/15]

Which comes first? Loving the ingroup or hating the outgroup? - Very cool study teases this question apart.  Bottom line: By the time your kid is eight it's all over. [7/1/15]

Racial, religious, and ethnic slurs on Twitter - A study of the use of language on Twitter [7/1/15]

Roots of authoritarianism - Good article reviewing some fascinating research on how little authoritarians might develop [7/1/15]

"How to defuse a hateful slur" - good essay from Wray Herbert [added 8/19/13]

"Babies prefer individuals who harm those that aren't like them" - A very clever study -- it starts early. [added 8/19/13]

"Even made up stereotypes can hurt" - interesting study in which stereotype threat was demonstrated for the made-up learning styles of "concave" or "convex" information processing [added 1/29/12]

The Hillary Clinton effect - "An antidote to stereotype threat is to remind people of high achieving members of their in-group. For example, reminding Black Americans of President Obama's success has been shown to improve their subsequent IQ test performance. Psychologists think this 'Obama effect' occurs because the role-model's salient success takes away the burden people feel of having to represent their group. A new study by Cheryl Taylor and colleagues has built on this literature by showing that the stereotype-busting effect of a role-model only occurs if that role-model's success is perceived as due to their own innate ability and effort. If the role-model is considered to have been lucky then their stereotype-busting power is lost. Taylor's team call this the Hillary Clinton effect." [added 6/5/11]

Is psychology biased against conservatives? - The link above is to an interesting take from Sam Sommers; here is a New York Times article about it. [added 6/5/11]

Reducing prejudice: Yes, we can! - "If you're trying to end racism, it's not enough to get people to understand that racism is still a problem. You also have to make them feel like they can do something about it, according to a new study published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science." [added 12/19/10]

"The Unsung pioneers in the study of prejudice" - interesting, brief history of some of those who preceded Gordon Allport [added 10/23/10]

"The rise of hate 2.0" - description of an increase of hate sites on the Web [added 7/11/09]

"Humanity-esteem and its social importance" - Fascinating research that relates one's humanity-esteem ("Overall, how favourable are you toward human beings in general?") and your likelihood to differentiate between groups, feel others are trustworthy, and more. Here's a couple scales that we are going to see a lot more of in the literature. [added 7/11/09]

Mix it up at lunch day - For the past few years the Southern Poverty Law Center has been fostering this program in which teens intentionally interact with students from "other" groups during lunch. Other programs have evolved from this as well. [added 8/18/08]

"Buried prejudice: The bigot in your brain" - good essay from Scientific American about the unconscious/automatic processes behind prejudice [6/20/08]

Humor can perpetuate stereotypes and discrimination - [added 12/16/07]

Reducing prejudice in children - "Psychologists Rebecca Bigler and Julie Milligan Hughes found white children who received history lessons about discrimination against famous African Americans had significantly more positive attitudes toward African Americans than those who received lessons with no mention of racism." [added 12/16/07]

Differences not deficits - a good report from the 2007 APS convention on how biases often lead us to label differences as deficits [added 9/30/07]

The Civil Rights Litigation Clearinghouse - "The Civil Rights Litigation Clearinghouse collects documents and information from civil rights cases in specific case categories across the United States." [added 12/31/06]

"Common ground helps reduce stereotyping" - article from the APS Observer on research [added 1/11/06]

Mixed communities - Report from The Brookings Institution describing efforts in the U.K. and the U.S. at creating housing which accommodates "a mix of incomes, ages, household types, and rental/ownership animates housing and planning policy." The report claims that in the U.S. " mixed-income strategies have transformed some of the nation's most troubled neighborhoods into healthy, functioning communities." [added 9/20/05]

Human Rights Watch - reports from this organization on abuses worldwide


Articles, Books, and Book Chapters (available online)

Book Chapters

Herek, G.M. (1990). Illness, stigma, and AIDS. In P. Costa & G.R. VandenBos (Eds.), Psychological aspects of serious illness (pp. 103-150). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Herek, G.M. (1991). Stigma, prejudice, and violence against lesbians and gay men. In J. Gonsiorek & J. Weinrich (Eds.), Homosexuality: Research implications for public policy (pp. 60-80). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Herek, G.M. (1992). Psychological heterosexism and antigay violence: The social psychology of bigotry and bashing. In G.M. Herek, & K.T. Berrill (Eds.) Hate crimes: Confronting violence against lesbians and gay men (pp. 149-169). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Herek, G.M. (1992). The social context of hate crimes: Notes on cultural heterosexism. In G.M. Herek, & K.T. Berrill (Eds.) Hate crimes: Confronting violence against lesbians and gay men (pp. 89-104). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Herek, G.M. (1992). The community response to violence in San Francisco: An interview with Wenny Kusuma, Lester Olmstead-Rose, and Jill Tregor. In G.M. Herek, & K.T. Berrill (Eds.) Hate crimes: Confronting violence against lesbians and gay men (pp. 241-258). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Herek, G.M. (1994). Assessing attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: A review of empirical research with the ATLG scale. In B. Greene, & G.M. Herek (Eds.) Lesbian and gay psychology: Theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. 206-228). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. (Information about the ATLG scale is available elsewhere on this site).

Herek, G.M. (1995). Psychological heterosexism in the United States. In A.R. D'Augelli & C.J. Patterson (Eds.) Lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities across the lifespan: Psychological perspectives (pp. 321-346). Oxford University Press.

Herek, G.M. (1996). Why tell if you're not asked? Self disclosure, intergroup contact, and heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. In G.M. Herek, J.J. Jobe, & R. Carney Eds.), Out in force: Sexual orientation and the military (pp. 197-225). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Herek, G.M. (1998). Bad science in the service of stigma: A critique of the Cameron group's survey studies. In G.M. Herek (Ed.) Stigma and sexual orientation: Understanding prejudice against lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (pp. 223-255). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Herek, G.M. (2000). Homosexuality. In A.E. Kazdin (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychology (pp. 149-153). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association & Oxford University Press.

Herek, G.M. (2000). The social construction of attitudes: Functional consensus and divergence in the US public's reactions to AIDS. In G. Maio & J. Olson (Eds.), Why we evaluate: Functions of attitudes (pp. 325-364). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Herek, G.M., & Glunt, E.K. (1995). Identity and community among gay and bisexual men in the AIDS era: Preliminary findings from the Sacramento Men's Health Study. In G.M. Herek & B. Greene (Eds.) AIDS, identity, and community: The HIV epidemic and lesbians and gay men (pp. 55-84). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Herek, G.M., & Jobe, J.B. (1996). Social science, sexual orientation, and military personnel policy. In G.M. Herek, J.J. Jobe, & R. Carney (Eds.), Out in force: Sexual orientation and the military (pp. pp. 3-14). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Jost, J.T. (2001). Outgroup favoritism and the theory of system justification: An experimental paradigm for investigating the effects of socio-economic success on stereotype content. In G. Moskowitz (Ed.), Cognitive social psychology: The Princeton symposium on the legacy and future of social cognition (pp. 89-102). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Jost, J.T., Burgess, D., & Mosso, C. (2001). Conflicts of legitimation among self, group, and system: The integrative potential of system justification theory. In J.T. Jost and B. Major (Eds.), The psychology of legitimacy: Emerging perspectives on ideology, justice, and intergroup relations (pp. 363-388). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Jost, J.T., & Elsbach, K. (2001). How status and power differences erode personal and social identities at work: A system justification critique of organizational applications of social identity theory. In M.A. Hogg & D.J. Terry (Eds.), Social identity processes in organizational contexts (pp. 181-196). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.

Jost, J.T., & Hamilton, D.L. (2005). Stereotypes in our culture. In J. Dovidio, P. Glick, & L. Rudman (Eds.), On the Nature of Prejudice: Fifty years after Allport (pp. 208-224). Oxford: Blackwell.

Payne, B. K., Jacoby, L. L., & Lambert, A. J. (2005). Attitudes as accessibility bias: Dissociating automatic and controlled components. In R. Hassin, J. Bargh, J. & Uleman, (Eds.), The New Unconscious. Oxford.

Payne, B. K., & Stewart, B. D. (2007). Automatic and controlled components of social cognition: A process dissociation approach. In J. A. Bargh (Ed.) Social Psychology and the Unconscious: The Automaticity of Higher Mental Processes. New York, NY: Psychology Press.

Wegner, D. M. & Smart, L. (2000). The hidden costs of hidden stigma. In T. F. Heatherton, R. E. Kleck, M. R. Hebl, & J. G. Hull (Eds.), The social psychology of stigma (pp. 220-242). New York: Guilford Press.


Apfelbaum, E. P., Pauker, K., Ambady, N., Sommers, S. R., & Norton, M. I. (2008). Learning (not) to talk about race: When older children underperform in social categorization. Developmental Psychology, 44, 1513-1518.

Apfelbaum, E. P., Sommers, S. R., & Norton, M. I. (2008). Seeing race and seeming racist? Evaluating strategic colorblindness in social interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 918-932.

Bailey, J.M., Dunne, M.P., Martin, N.G. (2000). Genetic and environmental influences on sexual orientation and its correlates in an Australian twin sample. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 524-536.

Bailey, J.M., Kim, P.Y., Hills, A., Linsenmeier, J.A.W. (1997). Butch, femme, or straight acting? Partner preferences of gay men and lesbians. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 960-973.

Bailey, J. M., Vasey, P. L., Diamond, L. M., Breedlove, S. M., Vilain, E., & Epprecht, M. (2016). Sexual orientation, controversy, and science. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 17, 45-101.

Baron, A.S., Banaji, M.R. (2006). The development of implicit attitudes: Evidence of race evaluations from ages 6, 10 & adulthood. Psychological Science, vol. 17 (1), pp. 53-58.

Blair, I.V., & Jost, J.T. (2003). Exit, loyalty, and collective action among workers in a simulated business environment: Interactive effects of group identification and boundary permeability. Social Justice Research, 16, 95-108.

Blanton, H., & Jaccard, J. (2008). Unconscious racism: A concept in pursuit of a measure. Annual Review of Sociology, 34, 277-297.

Blascovich, J., Mendes, W. B., Hunter, S., Lickel, B., & Kowai-Bell, N. (2001). Perceiver threat in social interactions with stigmatized others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 253-267.

Boysen, G., Vogel, D. L. & Madon, S. (2006). Boysen, G. A., Vogel, D. L., & Madon, S. (2006). Public and private assessment of implicit bias. European Journal of Social Psychology, 36, 845-856.

Bushman, B. J., & Bonacci, A. M. (2004). You`ve got mail: Using e-mail to examine the effect of prejudiced attitudes on discrimination against Arabs. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 753-759.

Chiu, P., Ambady, N., & Deldin, P. (2004). CNB in response to emotional in- and out-group stimuli differentiates high- and low-prejudiced individuals. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16, 1830-1839.

Cobb, M. D., & Boettcher, III, W.A. (2007). Ambivalent sexism and misogynistic rap music: Does exposure to Eminem increase sexism? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37, 3025-3042.

Cohen, G. L., Garcia, J., Purdie-Vaughns, N., Apfel, N., & Brzustoski, P. (2009). Recursive processes in self-affirmation: Intervening to close the minority achievement gap. Science, 324, 400-403.

Cohen, G. L., Steele, C.M., Ross, L. D. (1999). The mentor's dilemma: Providing critical feedback across the racial divide. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 1302-1318.

Correll, J., Park, B., Judd, C. M., Wittenbrink, B., Sadler, M. S., & Keesee, T. (2007). Across the thin blue line: Police officers and racial bias in the decision to shoot. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 1006-1023.

Cox, W. T. L., Devine, P. G., Bischmann, A. A., & Hyde, J. S. (2015). Inferences about sexual orientation: The role of stereotypes, faces, and the gaydar myth. The Journal of Sex Research, 53, 157-171.

Das, E., Bushman, B. J., Bezemer, M. D., Kerkhof, P., & Vermeulen, I. E. (2009). How terrorism news reports increase prejudice against outgroups: A Terror Management account. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 453-459.

Dasgupta, A. G., & Greenwald, A. G. (2001). Exposure to admired group members reduces automatic intergroup bias. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 800-814.

Dasgupta, N., McGhee, D. E., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (2000). Automatic preference for White Americans: Eliminating the familiarity explanation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 36, 316-328.

Davis, D. W., Silver, B. D. (2003). Stereotype threat and race of interviewer effects in a survey on political knowledge. American Journal of Political Science, 47, 33-45.

Dovidio, J. F., Gaertner, S. L., Kawakami, K., & Hodson, G. (2002). Why can't we just get along? Interpersonal biases and interracial distrust. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 8, 88-102.

Dovidio, J. F., Kawakami, K., & Gaertner, S. L. (2002). Implicit and explicit prejudice and interracial interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 62-68.

Dovidio, J.F., Kawakami, K., Johnson, C., Johnson, B., & Howard, A. (1997). On the nature of prejudice: Automatic and controlled processes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology: Special Issue on Unconscious Processes in Stereotyping and Prejudice, 33, 510-540.

Dunham, Y., Chen, E., & Banaji, M.R. (2013). Two signatures of implicit intergroup attitudes: Developmental invariance and early enculturation. Psychological Science, 24, 860-868.

Edelman, B., Luca, M., & Svirsky, D. (2016). Racial discrimination in the sharing economy: Evidence from a field experiment. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School.

Elfenbein, H. A. & Ambady, N. (2002). Is there an ingroup advantage in emotion recognition? Psychological Bulletin, 128, 243-249.

Ehrlinger, J., Plant, E. A., Eibach, R. P., Goplen, J., Columb, C., Kunstman, J., & Butz, D.A. (2011). How exposure to the Confederate flag affects willingness to vote for Barack Obama. Political Psychology, 32, 131-146.

Everly, B. A., Shih, M. J., & Ho, G. C. (2012). Don't ask, don't tell? Does disclosure of gay identity affect partner performance?. Journal Of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 407-410.

Fazio, R. H. (2001). On the automatic activation of associated evaluations: An overview. Cognition and Emotion, 15, 115-141.

Fazio, R. H., & Hilden, L. E. (2001). Emotional reactions to a seemingly prejudiced response: The role of automatically-activated racial attitudes and motivation to control prejudiced reactions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 538-549.

Fazio, R. H., & Olson, M. A. (2003). Implicit measures in social cognition research: Their meaning and use. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 297-327.

Freeman, J., Penner, A. M., Saperstein, A., Scheutz, M., & Ambady, N. (2011). Looking the part: Social status cues shape racial perception. PLoS ONE, 6, e25107.

Gartrell, N., & Bos, H. (2010). US National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study: Psychological adjustment of 17-year-old adolescents. Pediatrics, 125, 1-9.

Govorun, O., Fuegen, K., & Payne, B. K. (2006). Stereotypes focus defensive projection. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 781-798.

Govorun, O., & Payne, B. K. (2006). Ego depletion and prejudice: Separating automatic and controlled components. Social Cognition, 24, 111-136.

Gray, H., Mendes, W. B., Denny-Brown, C. (2008). An in-group advantage to detecting intergroup anxiety. Psychological Science, 19, 1233-1237.

Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (1995). Implicit social cognition: Attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes. Psychological Review, 102, 4-27.

Greenwald, A. G., Banaji, M. R., Rudman, L. A., Farnham, S. D., Nosek, B. A., & Mellott, D. S. (2002). A unified theory of implicit attitudes, stereotypes, self-esteem, and self-concept. Psychological Review, 109, 3-25.

Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J. K. L. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The implicit association test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464-1480.

Greenwald, A. G., Nosek, B. A., & Banaji, M. R. (2003). Understanding and Using the Implicit Association Test: I. An Improved Scoring Algorithm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 197-216.

Greenwald, A. G., & Nosek, B. A. (2001). Health of the Implicit Association Test at age 3. Zeitschrift für Experimentelle Psychologie, 48, 85-93.

Greenwald, A. G., Oakes, M. A., & Hoffman, H. (2003). Targets of Discrimination: Effects of Race on Responses to Weapons Holders. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39, 399-405.

Greenwald, A. G., Pickrell, J. E., & Farnham, S. D. (2002). Implicit partisanship: Taking sides for no reason. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 367-379.

Greenwald, A. G., Poehlman, T. A., Uhlmann, E., & Banaji, M. R. (2009). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: III. Meta-analysis of predictive validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 17-41.

Haines, E.L., & Jost, J.T. (2000). Placating the powerless: Effects of legitimate and illegitimate explanation on affect, memory, and stereotyping. Social Justice Research, 13, 219-236.

Han, H. A., Olson, M. A., & Fazio, R. H. (2006). The influence of experimentally-created extrapersonal associations on the Implicit Association Test. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 259-272.

Herek, G.M. (1999). AIDS and stigma in the United States. [Special issue]. American Behavioral Scientist, 42 (7).

Herek, G.M. (2009). Hate crimes and stigma-related experiences among sexual minority adults in the United States: Prevalence estimates from a national probability sample. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 24, 54-74.

Higgins, E. T., Forster, J., & Strack, F. (2000). When stereotype disconfirmation is a personal threat: How prejudice and prevention focus moderate incongruency effects. Social Cognition, 18, 178-197.


Hoyt, C. L., Aguilar, L., Kaiser, C. R., Blascovich, J. & Lee, K. (2007). The self-protective and undermining effects of attributional ambiguity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 884-893.

Hummert, M. L., Garstka, T. A., O'Brien, L. T., Greenwald, A. G., Mellott, D. S. (2002). Using the Implicit Association Test to measure age differences in implicit social cognitions. Psychology and Aging, 17, 482-495.

Inzlicht, M., Kaiser, C. R., & Major, B. (2008). The face of chauvinism: How prejudice expectations shape perceptions of facial affect. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 758-766.

Johnson, J. D., Bushman, B. J., & Dovidio, J. F. (2008). Support for harmful treatment and reduction of empathy toward Blacks:"Remnants" of stereotype activation involving Hurricane Katrina and "Lil' Kim". Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1506-1513.

Jordan, C. H., Spencer, S. J., & Zanna, M. P. (2005). Types of high self-esteem and prejudice: How implicit self-esteem relates to racial discrimination among high explicit self-esteem individuals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 693-702.

Jost, J. T. (2001). System justification theory as compliment, complement, and corrective to theories of social identification and social dominance. Research Paper Series, Graduate School of Business, Stanford University.

Jost, J.T., Banaji, M.R., & Nosek, B.A. (2004). A decade of system justification theory: Accumulated evidence of conscious and unconscious bolstering of the status quo. Political Psychology, 25, 881-919.

Jost, J.T., & Burgess, D. (2000). Attitudinal ambivalence and the conflict between group and system justification motives in low status groups. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 293-305.

Jost, J.T., & Hunyady, O. (2005). Antecedents and consequences of system-justifying ideologies. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 260-265.

Jost, J.T., Kivetz, Y., Rubini, M., Guermandi, G., & Mosso, C. (2005). System-justifying functions of complementary regional and ethnic stereotypes: Cross-national evidence. Social Justice Research, 18, 305-333.

Jost, J. T. & Kay, A. C. (2005). Exposure to benevolent sexism and complementary gender stereotypes: Consequences for specific and diffuse forms of system justification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 498-509.

Jost, J.T., & Thompson, E.P. (2000). Group-based dominance and opposition to equality as independent predictors of self-esteem, ethnocentrism, and social policy attitudes among African Americans and European Americans. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 36, 209-232.

Kaiser, C. R., Drury, B. J., Spalding, K. E., Cheryan, S., & O'Brien, L. T. (2009). The ironic consequences of Obama's election: Decreased support for social justice. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 556-559.

Kaiser, C.R., Dyrenforth, P. S., & Hagiwara, N. (2006). Why are attributions to discrimination interpersonally costly?: A test of system and group justifying motivations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,32, 1523-1536.

Kaiser, C. R., Eccleston, C. P., & Hagiwara, N. (2008). Post-Hurricane Katrina racialized explanations as a system threat: Implications for Whites' and Blacks' racial attitudes. Social Justice Research, 21, 192-203.

Kaiser, C. R., & Major, B. (2006). A social psychological perspective on perceiving and reporting discrimination. Law and Social Inquiry, 36, 801-830.

Kaiser, C. R., Major, B., & McCoy, S. K. (2004). Expectations about the future and the emotional consequences of perceiving prejudice. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 173-184.

Kaiser, C. R. & Miller, C. T. (2001). Stop complaining!: The social costs of making attributions to discrimination. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 254-263.

Kaiser, C. R. & Miller, C. T. (2001). Reacting to impending discrimination: Compensation for prejudice and attributions to discrimination. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 1357-1367.

Kaiser, C. R. & Miller, C. T. (2003). Derogating the victim: The interpersonal consequences of blaming events on discrimination. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 6, 227-237.

Kaiser, C. R. & Miller, C. T. (2004). A stress and coping perspective on confronting sexism. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 168-178.

Kaiser, C. R. & Pratt-Hyatt, J. S. (2009). Distributing prejudice unequally: Do Whites direct their prejudice toward strongly identified minorities? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 432-445.

Kaiser, C. R., Vick, S. B., & Major, B. (2004). A prospective investigation of the relationship between just world beliefs and the desire for revenge post-September 11, 2001. Psychological Science, 15, 503-507.

Kaiser, C. R., Vick, S. B., & Major, B. (2006). Prejudice expectations moderate preconscious attention to social identity threatening cues. Psychological Science, 17, 332-338.

Kawakami, K., Dion, K.L., & Dovidio, J.F. (1998). Racial prejudice and stereotype activation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 407-416.

Kawakami, K., Dion, K.L., & Dovidio, J.F. (1999). The Stroop task and preconscious activation of racial stereotypes. Swiss Journal of Psychology: Special Issue on Stereotyping and Prejudice, 58, 241-250.

Kawakami, K., & Dovidio, J.F. (2001). Implicit stereotyping: How reliable is it? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 212-225.

Kawakami, K., Dovidio, J.F., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2003). Effect of social category priming on personal attitudes. Psychological Science, 14, 315-319.

Kawakami, K., Dovidio, J.F., Moll, J., Hermsen, S., & Russin, A. (2000). Just say no (to stereotyping): Effects of training in the negation of stereotypic associations on stereotype activation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 78, 871-888.

Kawakami, K., Dunn, E., Karmali, F., & Dovidio, J. F. (2009). Mispredicting affective and behavioral responses to racism. Science, 323, 276-278.

Kawakami, K., Spears, R., & Dovidio, J.F. (2002). Disinhibition of stereotyping: Context, prejudice, and target characteristics. European Journal of Social Psychology, 32, 517-530.

Kawakami, K., Steele, J. R., Cifa, C., Phills, C. E., & Dovidio, J. F. (2008). Approaching math increases math = me, math = pleasant. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 818-825.

Kawakami, K., Young, H., & Dovidio, J.F. (2002). Automatic stereotyping: Category, trait, and behavioral activations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 3-15.

Kay, A. C., & Jost, J. T. (2003). Complementary justice: Effects of "poor but happy" and "poor but honest" stereotype exemplars on system justification and implicit activation of the justice motive. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 823-837.

Kay, A. C., Jost, J.T., & Young, S. (2005). Victim-derogation and victim-enhancement as alternate routes to system-justification. Psychological Science, 16, 240-246.

Kimel, S., Huesmann, R., Kunst, J., & Halperin, E. (2016). Living in a genetic world: How learning about interethnic genetic similarities and differences affects peace and conflict. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 42, 688-700.

Lai, C. K., Hoffman, K. M., & Nosek, B. A. (2013). Reducing implicit prejudice. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7, 315-330.

Lai, C. K., Marini, M., Lehr, S. A., Cerruti, C., Shin, J. L., Joy-Gaba, J. A., Ho, A. K., Teachman, B. A., Wojcik, S. P., Koleva, S. P., Frazier, R. S., Heiphetz, L., Chen, E., Turner, R. N., Haidt, J., Kesebir, S., Hawkins, C. B., Schaefer, H. S., Rubichi, S., Sartori, G., Dial, C. M., Sriram, N., Banaji, M. R., & Nosek, B. A. (in press). Reducing implicit racial preferences: I. A comparative investigation of 17 interventions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.


Lambert, A. J., Payne, B. K., & Jacoby, L. L. (2004). Accuracy and error: Constraints on process models in social psychology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 27, 350-351.

Lambert, A. J., Chasteen, A., Payne, B. K., & Shaffer, L. M. (2004). Typicality and group variability as dual moderators of category-based inferences. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 708- 722.

Lambert, A. J., Payne, B. K., Ramsey, S., & Shaffer, L. M. (2005). On the predictive validity of implicit attitude measures: The moderating effect of perceived group variability. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41, 114-128.

Lambert, A. J., Payne, B. K., Shaffer, L. M, Jacoby, L. L., Chasteen, A., & Khan, S. (2003). Stereotypes as dominant responses: On the “social facilitation” of prejudice in anticipated public contexts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 277-295.

Lebrecht S., Pierce L. J., Tarr M. J., & Tanaka J. W. (2009). Perceptual other-race training reduces implicit racial bias. PLoS ONE, 4, 1-7.

Madon, S., Guyll, M., Hilbert, S. J., Kyriakatos, E., & Vogel, D. (2005). Stereotyping the stereotypic: When individuals match social stereotypes. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36, 178-205.

Madon, S., Smith, A. E., & Guyll, M. (2005). Social norms regarding protected status and threat reactions to the stigmatized. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35, 572-602.

Major, B., Kaiser, C. R., & McCoy, S. K. (2003). It's not my fault: When and why attributions to prejudice protect well-being. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 772-781.

Major, B., Kaiser, C. R., O'Brien, L. T., & McCoy, S. K. (2007). Perceived discrimination as worldview threat or worldview confirmation: Implications for self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 1068-1086.

Mendes, W. B., Blascovich, J., Hunter, S., Lickel, B., & Jost, J. (2007). Threatened by the unexpected: Challenge and threat during inter-ethnic interactions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 698-716.

Mendes, W. B., Blascovich, J., Lickel, B., & Hunter, S. (2002). Challenge and threat during social interactions with white and black men. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 939-952.

Mendes, W. B., Gray, H., Mendoza-Denton, Major, B. & Epel, E. (2007). Why egalitarianism might be good for your health: Physiological thriving during inter-racial interactions. Psychological Science, 18, 991-998.

Mendes, W. B., Major, B., McCoy, S., & Blascovich, J. (2008). How attributional ambiguity shapes physiological and emotional responses to social rejection and acceptance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 278-291.

Messing, S., Jabon, M., & Plaut, E. (2016). Bias in the flesh: Skin complexion and stereotype consistency in political campaigns. Public Opinion Quarterly, 80, 44-65.

  • online article that references the research and discusses a related example

Miller, C. T. & Kaiser, C. R. (2001). A theoretical perspective on coping with stigma. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 73-92.

Monteith, M.J., Sherman, J.W., & Devine, P.G. (1998). Suppression as a stereotype control strategy. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2, 63-82.

Navarrete, C.D. (2005). Mortality concerns and other adaptive challenges: The effects of coalition-relevant challenges on worldview defense in the U.S. and Costa Rica. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 8, 411-427.

Navarrete, C.D. & Fessler, D.M.T. (2005). Normative bias and adaptive challenges: A relational approach to coalitional psycholology and a critique of terror managment theory. Journal of Evolutionary Psychology, 3, 297-325.

Navarrete, C.D. & Fessler, D.M.T. (2006). Disease avoidance and ethnocentrism: the effects of disease vulnerability and disgust sensitivity on intergroup attitudes. Evolution and Human Behavior, 27, 270-282.

Navarrete, C.D., Fessler, D.M.T., & Eng, S.J. (2007). Increased ethnocentrism in the first trimester of pregnancy. Evolution and Human Behavior. 28, 60-65.

Navarrete, C. D., Fessler, D. M. T., Fleischman, D. S., & Geyer, J. (2009). Race bias tracks conception risk across the menstrual cycle. Psychological Science, 20, 661-665.

Navarrete, C.D., Kurzban, R., Fessler, D.M.T, & Kirkpatrick, L. (2004). Anxiety and intergroup bias: Terror-management or coalitional psychology? Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 7, 370-397.

Navarette, C. D., Olsson, A., Ho, A. K., Mendes, W. B., Thomsen, L., & Sidanius, J. (2009). Fear extinction to an out-group face: The role of target gender. Psychological Science, 20, 155-158.

Norton, M. I., Sommers, S. R., Apfelbaum, E. P., Pura, N. & Ariely, D. (2006). Colorblindness and interracial interaction: Playing the political correctness game. Psychological Science, 17, 949-953.

Nosek, B. A., Smyth, F. L., Hansen, J. J., Devos, T., Lindner, N. M., Ranganath, K. A., Smith, C. T., Olson, K. R., Chugh, D., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (2007). Pervasiveness and correlates of implicit attitudes and stereotypes. European Review of Social Psychology, 18, 36-88.

Olson, M. A., & Fazio, R. H. (2006). Reducing automatically-activated racial prejudice through implicit evaluative conditioning. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 421-433.

Olson, M. A., & Fazio, R. H. (2004). Reducing the influence of extra-personal associations on the Implicit Association Test: Personalizing the IAT. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 653-667.

Olson, M. A., & Fazio, R. H. (2004). Trait inferences as a function of automatically-activated racial attitudes and motivation to control prejudiced reactions. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 26, 1-11.

Olson, M. A., & Fazio, R. H. (2003). Relations between implicit measures of racial prejudice: What are we measuring? Psychological Science, 14, 636-639.

Olson, M. A., & Fazio, R. H. (2002). Implicit acquisition and manifestation of classically conditioned attitudes. Social Cognition, 20, 89-103.

Olson, M. A., & Fazio, R. H. (2001). Implicit attitude formation through classical conditioning. Psychological Science, 12, 413-417.

Overbeck, J., Jost, J.T., Mosso, C., & Flizik, A. (2004). Resistant vs. acquiescent responses to group inferiority as a function of social dominance orientation in the USA and Italy. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 7, 35-54.

Paluck, E. L. (2009). Reducing intergroup prejudice and conflict using the media: A field experiment in Rwanda. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 574–587.

Paluck, E. L., & Green, D. P. (2009). Prejudice reduction: What works? A review and assessment of research and practice. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 339-367.

Parsons, C.A., Sulaeman, J., Yates, M.C., & Hamermesh, D.S. (as yet unpublished). Strike three: Umpires' demand for discrimination. [added 11/20/07]

Payne, B.K. (2001). Prejudice and perception: The role of automatic and controlled processes in misperceiving a weapon. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 181-192. [added 7/15/05]

Payne, B. K. (2005). Conceptualizing control in social cognition: How executive control modulates the expression of automatic stereotyping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 488-503.

Payne, B. K. (2006). Weapon bias: Split second decisions and unintended stereotyping. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15, 287-291.

Payne, B. K., Burkley, M., & Stokes, M. B. (2008). Why do implicit and explicit attitude tests diverge? The role of structural fit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 16-31.

Payne, B.K., Cheng, C. M., Govorun, O., & Stewart, B. (2005). An inkblot for attitudes: Affect misattribution as implicit measurement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 277-293.

Payne, B. K., & Corrigan, E. (2007). Emotional constraints on intentional forgetting. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 780-786.

Payne, B. K., Govorun, O., & Arbuckle, N. L. (2008). Automatic attitudes and alcohol: Does implicit liking predict drinking? Cognition and Emotion, 22, 238-271.

Payne, B. K. , & Jacoby, L. L. (2006). What should a process model deliver? Psychological Inquiry, 17, 194-198.

Payne, B.K., Jacoby, L.L., & Lambert, A.J. (2004). Memory monitoring and the control of stereotype distortion. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 52-64.

Payne, B.K., Lambert, A.J., & Jacoby, L.L. (2002). Best laid plans: Effects of goals on accessibility bias and cognitive control in race-based misperceptions of weapons. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 384-396.

Payne, B. K., McClernon, J. F., & Dobbins, I. G. (2007). Automatic affective responses to smoking cues. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 15, 400-409.

Payne, B.K., Shimizu, Y., & Jacoby, L.L. (2005). Mental control and visual illusions: Toward explaining race-biased weapon identifications. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41, 36-47.

Pittinsky, T. L., Shih, M., & Ambady, N. (2000). Will a category cue affect you? Category cues, positive stereotypes, and reviewer recall for college applicants. Social Psychology of Education.

Pittinsky, T. L., Shih, M., & Ambady, N. (1999). Identity adaptiveness: Affect across multiple identities. Journal of Social Issues, 55(3), 503-518.

Plous, S. (1996). Ten myths about affirmative action. Journal of Social Issues, 52, 25-31.

Ponseti, J., Siebner, H.R., Kloppel, S., Wolff, S., Granert, O., Jansen, O., Mehdorn, H.M., & Bosinski, H.A. (2007). Homosexual women have less grey matter in perirhinal cortex than heterosexual women. PLoS ONE 2(8): e762. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000762.

Quillan, L., Pager, D., Hexel, O., & Midtboen, A. H. (2017). Meta-analysis of field experiments shows no change in racial discrimination in hiring over time. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 114, 10870–10875.

Richeson, J., & Ambady, N. (2001). Who's in charge? Effects of situational roles on automatic gender bias. Sex Roles, 44, 493-512.

Richeson, J., & Ambady, N. (2001). When roles reverse: Stigma, status, and self-evaluation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31, 1350-1378.

Richeson, J.A., Baird, A.A., Gordon, H.L., Heatherton, T.F, Wyland, C.L., Trawalter, S., & Shelton, J.N. (2003). An fMRI examination of the impact of interracial contact on executive function. Nature Neuroscience, 6, 1323-1328.

Richeson, J.A., & Nussbaum, R.J. (2004). The impact of multiculturalism versus color-blindness on racial bias. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 417-423.

Richeson, J.A., & Shelton, J.N. (2003). When prejudice does not pay: Effects of interracial contact on executive function. Psychological Science, 14, 287-290.

Richeson, J.A., & Shelton, J.N. (2005). Thin slices of racial bias. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 29, 75-86.

Richeson, J.A., & Trawalter, S. (2005). On the categorization of admired and disliked exemplars of admired and disliked racial groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 517-530.

Richeson, J.A., & Trawalter, S. (2005). Why do interracial interactions impair executive function? A resource depletion account. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 934-947.

Schmader, T. (2010). Stereotype threat deconstructed. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19, 14-18.

Schmader, T., Forber, C. E., Zhang, S., Johns, M., & Mendes, W. B. (2009). A meta-cognitive perspective on the cognitive deficits experienced in intellectually threatening environments. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 584-596.

Shelton, J.N., & Richeson, J.A. (2005). Intergroup contact and pluralistic ignorance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 91-107.

Shelton, J.N., Richeson, J.A., & Salvatore, J. (2005). Expecting to be the target of prejudice: Implications for interethnic interactions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 1189-1202.

Shelton, J.N., Richeson, J.A., Salvatore, J., & Trawalter, S. (2005). Ironic effects of racial bias during interracial interactions. Psychological Science, 16, 397-402.

Sherman, J.W. (2005). Automatic and controlled components of implicit stereotyping and prejudice. Psychological Science Agenda, 19(3).

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Smith, P., Dijksterhuis, A., & Chaiken, S. (2008). Subliminal exposure to faces and racial attitudes: Exposure to Whites makes Whites like Blacks less. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 50-64.

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